The image here was a 478-second exposure (2 seconds shy of 8 minutes), using Nikon’s Long Exposure Noise Reduction (dark frame subtraction, the shutter is closed and baseline sensor noise is subtracted outs).
For my field work, I almost always use the camera’s Long Exposure Noise Reduction feature because it eliminates a certain type of noise very effectively. However, it also doubles the exposure time, e.g. an 8-minute exposure followed by 8 minutes more of processing for a total time of 16 minutes.
The image as shot was two stops underexposed (not my plan, but guessing exposure as the light is changing is hard!). The brighter version as shown has been “pushed” two stops for an effective ISO of 400.
~8 Minutes at ISO 100
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