Introduction and overview of making sharp images..
Making image captures look sharp..
Bypass the limits on depth of field and diffraction..
Examples of Focus Stacking..
Zone of focus, not plane of focus.
Elusive sharpness, depending on aperture.
Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..
How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..
Illuminating examples of lens behavior..
Research into sharpness of handheld images with and without image stabilization.
Stability of tripods and ballheads, controlling camera vibration, selecting equipment..
Maximizing image quality, dynamic range, minimizing digital noise.
The best becomes better..
Improvements on the workhorse D800E..
Image quality best practices and how-to with the Nikon D800/D800E..
D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..
Comparing the 2012/2013 high-res pro DSLRs..
24-megapixel APS-C consumer DSLR..
22 megapixel successor to the popular 5D Mark II..
50 megapixel successor to the 22 megapixel Canon 5D Mark III..
Ultra fast 200mm with gorgeous bokeh and high resolving power..
Canon 1D Mark IV 16-megapixel DSLR..
Nikon vs Canon: Noise and Sharpness.
Medium telephoto tilt/shift macro focusing lens.
Tamron’s ultra wide to medium fast zoom..
The fastest extreme wide angle yet..
Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..
Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..
Sigma’s best portrait lens..
Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..
The Sigma 50mm f/1.4 is a worthy contender in the crowded 50mm area. See how it performs compared to the Canon EF 50/1.4 and EF 50/1.2L..
Nikon’s latest wide range zoom with vibration reduction and fixed f/4 aperture..
Nikon’s latest 50mm lens compared with the Zeiss ZF 50/1.4, Nikon 50/1.4D and Sigma 50/1.4..
Nikon’s High Performance Moderately-Priced 50mm..
Nikon’s High performance normal lens.
State of the art design in a fast ultra wide angle lens..
Nikon’s workhorse 200mm macro lens, and not just sharp at close-ups!.
Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..
Versatile autofocus wide angle..
A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..
Extreme wide angle zoom..
Is the 3rd time the charm?.
Canon’s compact image stabilized wide angle zoom..
Relatively inexpensive alternative to the pro 35/1.4G..
State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..
Compact and lightweight travel-friendly telephoto..
Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.
All-arounder compact lens with macro capability..
High speed normal lens optimized for Canon mirrorless..
Bread and butter all-around zoom..
Bread and butter all-around zoom..
Moderate wide angle expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..
Normal lens expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..
Mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..
Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..
Fast high performance normal lens of Zeiss design..
Compact moderate wide angle for Sony mirrorless..
Compact normal lens for full-frame Sony mirrorless..
Top-grade medium telephoto..
Wide angle to telephoto zoom with optical stabilization..
Premiere telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.
The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.
Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..
Normal lens for Micro Four Thirds or Sony E Mount/NEX..
Compact sibling of the Fujifilm X-Pro1.
24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..
Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..
Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..
Manual focus moderate wide angle for full-frame mirrorless..
Manual focus normal lens for full-frame mirrorless..
Manual focus telephoto lens for full-frame mirrorless..
Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
All-around slightly wide angle/normal with close focus..
Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Apochromatic pin-sharp medium telephoto for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..
Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..
Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.
45mm f/2.8 equivalent FOV lens..
Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .
Medium format telephoto lens, 74mm equivalent..
Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..
High end image quality, but what about lenses?.
The last CCD-sensor Leica S model..
Extreme wide angle with ultra high performance..
Moderate wide angle with low distortion..
Unique challenges of digital infrared..
Milvus garb for the venerable 15/2.8 Distagon, with improved lens coating..
An outstanding 18mm design..
The classic 21/2.8 Distagon improved..
Highest performing 25mm from Zeiss ever..
Highest performing 35mm from Zeiss ever..
Classic design in the latest Milvus build..
Outstanding build and optical quality in a normal lens..
The classic 50/2 Makro-Planar improved..
Outstanding build and optical quality in a medium tele..
The classic 100/2 Makro-Planar improved..
On Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..
Sharpness and rendering..
Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..
A brilliant, but also colorful character..
Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .
Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..
A gem with unusual close-focus..
An artist’s drawing tool..
Brilliant imaging in a compact package..
Versatility in a “normal” lens and macro too!.
Fast high performance APO wide angle..
Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..
Ultra high performance apochromatic medium telephoto, overview and technical..
King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..
Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..
Articles written for Lenspire.ZEISS.com..
Understanding lens performance..
Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.
Ultimate resolution in black and white..
24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..
24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..
Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..
Leica’s widest prime lens..
Leica’s fastest and widest lens..
Leica’s best-performing 21mm..
Leica’s fast wide angle..
A discontinued but excellent 24mm..
Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..
Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..
Tweaked 2016 redesign of Leica’s petite performer..
Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..
Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..
Leica’s f/2 35mm for the M..
Leica’s Budget 35mm lens..
World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..
Leica’s superlative normal lens..
The world’s best 50mm lens is outstanding, but with some limits..
Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..
Leica’s Budget 50mm lens..
Leica’s ultra high grade and ultra fast modern short telephoto..
Leica’s medium tele for Leica M..
Leica’s budget 75mm medium telephoto..
Leica’s longer tele for Leica M..
Leica’s retro telephoto..
Leica’s compact 90mm for the M..
Diminutive telephoto and macro lens..
Compact lens for portraiture or similar..
Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..
World’s best mid-range telephoto lens..
Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..
Compact high performance, ultra low distortion..
Moderate speed high contrast ultra-wide..
Zero distortion ultra-wide..
Compact wide angle with brilliant contrast..
Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..
All around razor sharp performer..
Ultra compact high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..
Pleasing and relatively inexpensive normal lens.
Ultra high performance (discontinued).
Compact high performance medium telephoto..
Blog posts, reverse chronological
2018-10-09 Nikon Z7: Image Sharpness vs Zone of Focus, Autofocus Error and Mitigation
2018-09-07 Canon RF 24-105mm f/4 IS vs Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/4 S: What Does the MTF Chart Tell Us?
2018-09-07 MTF Services Unveils the First Lens Adapters for Nikon Z-Mount
2018-01-28 Sony A7R III Pixel Shift: How Distortion Correction Affects Micro Contrast and Sharpness with Sony 24-105/4G OSS @ 105mm
2018-01-28 Sony A7R III Pixel Shift: How Distortion Correction Affects Micro Contrast and Sharpness with Sony 24-105/4G OSS @ 24mm
2017-12-04 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Getting started with Focus Stacking – How to achieve more detailed images”
2017-11-07 Zeiss Milvus 25mm f/1.4: Optical Construction and Siemens Star MTF Analysis
2017-10-18 Zeiss Milvus 25mm f/1.4: MTF, Distortion, Vignetting
2017-10-05 Zeiss Milvus 35mm f/1.4: Full MTF Series from f/1.4 through f/16
2017-10-01 D850 vs D810 Sharpness: Pine Creek Forested Hillside
2017-08-29 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Micro Contrast and the Zeiss 'Pop'”
2017-07-21 Sony A7R II Tripod Use: IBIS Damages Image Sharpness as it Always Has
2017-02-25 Fujifilm GFX 50s: Shooting with Different Aspect Ratios
2017-02-25 MTF for Fujifilm GFX GF Lenses
2016-12-08 Zeiss Loxia 85mm f/2.4 MTF Series from f/2.4 to f/16
2016-12-08 Zeiss Milvus 18mm f/2.8: Full MTF Series from f/2.8 through f/16
2016-12-04 Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E Aperture Series: Evaluating Sharpness at 12mm Shift Along the Short Axis (Mosaic, Nikon D810)
2016-12-04 Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E Dual Aperture Series: Evaluating Sharpness at 12mm Shift (Mosaic, Nikon D810)
2016-11-10 Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art Arriving Friday for Testing
2016-11-07 MTF for the Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art
2016-08-25 Sony A7R II IBIS (In Body Image Stabilization) Destroys Sharpness on a Tripod
2016-07-15 Depth of field and Sharpness: Conventional Thinking is Unrealistic Going Forward, Focus Stacking is One Solution
2016-04-14 Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon: MTF Can Be Better than the MTF Charts Show
2016-02-04 Sony Diffraction-Free Computed Fantasy MTF
2016-01-29 Leica Data Sheet for MTF of Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH Error
2015-10-14 Zeiss Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon MTF
2015-09-11 Complete MTF for Zeiss Milvus 50mm f/1.4 and Zeiss Milvus 85mm f/1.4 MTF
2015-09-11 Understanding the new Zeiss Milvus Lineup
2015-07-30 Leica 100mm f/2 Summicron-S ASPH: MTF Analysis
2015-06-21 Canon 5DS R is a Sharper and More Versatile Monochrome Camera than Leica M Monochrom Typ 246
2015-06-21 Shootout: Canon 5DS R vs Canon 5DS vs Canon 5D Mark III vs Nikon D810 (Old Map)
2015-06-17 Canon 5DS R: Sharpness, Noise, Monochrome Potential
2015-06-17 Compared: Canon 5DS R vs Canon 5D Mark III (Sharpness, Mosaic)
2015-06-16 Canon 5DS R: Sharpness, Noise, Monochrome Potential
2015-06-15 Reader Comment: Portraits and Sharpness and Skin Tones with Sony A7, A7R, A7R II
2015-06-12 Canon 5DS R Expected Soon: What About Lenses and Sharpness?
2015-06-07 Leica M Monochrom Typ 246: Amazing Sharpness (examples)
2015-05-26 Sony FE 28mm f/2: Strong Distortion and How Correcting it Damages Sharpness
2015-05-24 Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar Caution: Sony SteadyShot Destroys Sharpness on a Tripod
2015-05-19 Sony FE 28mm f/2: Assessing Focus Shift and Color Correction and Sharpness at Close Range (Dolls, Sony A7R)
2015-04-29 Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon: MTF Series from f/2 - f/16 + Distortion
2015-04-29 Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar: MTF Series from f/1.8 - f/16 + Distortion
2015-04-01 Tamron SP 15-30mm f/2.8 Di VC USD: Image Stabilization Aperture Series on Tripod, Showing Sharpness Damage
2015-03-27 Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art, MTF
2015-02-27 Sharper Images by Technique and Shot Discipline
2014-10-08 Zeiss Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar: Full MTF Series from f/1.4 - f/16
2014-09-16 Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon for Leica M: Best 35mm M Lens Yet?
2014-09-03 Zeiss Loxia MTF Discussion
2014-07-06 Sharpness Fans, Your Ship Has Come In: Sigma dp2 Quattro Aperture Series 'Mosaic'
2014-07-01 The Effect of Focus Shift on Image Sharpness
2014-05-13 My Most Important Publication: Making Sharp Images
2014-04-30 Wide Aperture and Sharpness Workshop with Zeiss APO Lenses For Participants
2014-03-26 Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH: Field of View, Distortion, MTF
2014-03-07 Leica 28m f/2 Summicron-M ASPH Aperture Series: Sharpness, examples
2014-03-01 Sigma DP1 Merrill: Class Leading Sharpness (Green Brick Summit Building)
2014-01-22 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)
2014-01-13 Mitigating A7R Micro Contrast Diffraction Losses with Sharpening
2013-10-25 Leica M240: Shutter Vibration Appears to Damage Image Sharpness
2013-10-08 MTF of Zeiss Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon Wide Open
2013-08-03 Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH: Field Curvature and Focus Shift on a Planar Subject
2013-08-01 Field Curvature of the Zeiss 15mm f/2.8 Distagon with Focus Bracketing
2013-07-26 Making Sharp Images new page: Flange to Sensor Alignment, Fantasy Land MTF
2013-07-25 MTF vs Field Curvature and Tips for Optimizing Focus
2013-07-18 Ricoh GR: Lens Quality and MTF
2013-07-12 Focus Bracketing for Peak Sharpness with a 15mm Lens
2013-06-08 Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH: Is Stopping Down Needed?
2013-05-31 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon: Aperture Series Sharpness, Bokeh (Picnic Table, Sony NEX-7)
2013-05-19 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar: Evening on the High Line in NYC
2013-05-18 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon: Examples, Evening Architecture
2013-05-18 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar: MTF and Distortion and Vignetting Charts (for Sony NEX + Fuji X)
2013-05-17 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon: MTF and Distortion and Vignetting Charts (for Sony NEX + Fuji X)
2013-05-08 Nikon D800E vs Canon 5D Mark III: the Nikon D800E Optical Low Pass Blur+Unblur Filter Pack
2013-05-02 How the Nikon D800E Compares to the Canon 5D Mark III in Noise and Usable Dynamic Range
2013-05-02 Nikon D800E vs Canon 5D Mark III: Sharpness
2013-05-01 Per Pixel: How the Nikon D800E Compares to the Canon 5D Mark III (update)
2013-04-30 Per Pixel: How the Nikon D800E Compares to the Canon 5D Mark III
2013-04-26 Zeiss 15mm f/2.8 Distagon: Field Curvature, MTF, Focus (Mosaic)
2013-04-17 Sigma DP2 Merrill Sharpness: Impressive Sharpness and Realized Depth of Field
2013-04-15 Zeiss ZE 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar IN STOCK for Canon
2013-03-29 Using the Sigma DP3 Merrill for Stitching: 66 Megapixels of Biting Sharpness
2013-03-28 Sigma DP3 Merrill Sharpness
2013-03-19 MTF at f/22 with the Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar
2013-02-23 Sometimes, Image Sharpness is a Handholding Problem
2013-02-08 When Will We See Canon Megapixels to Match Nikon?
2013-01-15 Zeiss 15mm f/2.8 Distagon: Field Curvature, MTF, Focus (Mosaic)
2012-11-26 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Quality Control Steps Up (“A1 MTF”)
2012-11-20 Canon 5D Mark III: ETTR Study of Optimal Exposure for RAW, RAW vs JPEG Exposure Latitude and Sharpness
2012-11-16 Nikon D800E: RAW vs JPEG Sharpness Study and Comparison
2012-11-13 Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar for Nikon and Canon — Not Far off Now
2012-09-27 Leica M Monochrom — Sharpness With Filters
2012-09-27 Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar for Nikon and Canon — Superlative Performer
2012-09-13 Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar MTF from f/2 - f/16
2012-08-29 Sony RX100: Examples and Sharpness
2012-07-27 At Which Aperture Does Diffraction Degrade Olympus OM-D E-M5 Image Sharpness?
2012-07-13 Image Sharpness in Photoshop CS6 with/without the GPU Enabled
2012-05-21 Filtration for Leica M Monochrom to Improve Image Sharpness and Tonal Separation
2012-05-03 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 Sharpness and Sharpening
2012-03-07 Diffraction, Sharpness and Nikon D800E
2012-02-09 My Reference Lenses For Testing Sharpness
2011-11-05 Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M— Outstanding Sharpness with Finesse
2011-01-14 Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Distagon MTF, distortion, vignetting
2010-11-25 Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8G VR II sharpness
2010-03-10 Lens rental perspective on lens quality aka MTF WTF
2010-02-12 MTF comments updated for Zeiss ZF / Zeiss ZE
2009-04-08 Zeiss’ Dr. Nasse on MTF, part II
2008-10-19 Real-world Sharpness II: D3/1DsM3 updated
2008-10-15 Nikon 70-200 VR sharpness workaround
2008-10-15 Real-world Sharpness II: D3/1DsM3 updated
2008-10-12 Real-world Sharpness II: Nikon D3 / Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III
2008-10-11 Real-world Sharpness: Nikon D3 / Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III
2008-07-07 Zeiss ZF 18mm f/3.5 Distagon MTF, Distortion, etc
2008-01-21 Zeiss white paper on MTF
2007-09-08 On sharpness, megapixels and lens testing