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Sharpness and Blur by Optics

Blur from optical behavior or subject-related issue..

Digital Sensor Technology

Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film..

How To Get Peak Sharpness With Perfect Focus

Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..

Focusing Accuracy (Case Studies)

Focusing accuracy and errors..

Depth of Field

Controlling the zone of sharp detail..

Depth of Field Mitigations

Increasing Depth of Field by means other than stopping down..

Focus Stacking Overview

Bypass the limits on depth of field and diffraction..

Focus Stacking Shooting Tips

Best practices for shooting stacking frames..

Focus Stacking Examples

Examples of Focus Stacking..

Diffraction

Getting peak performance from your lens.

Field Curvature

Zone of focus, not plane of focus.

Field Curvature (Case Studies)

Actual example of field curvature..

Focus Shift (Case Studies)

Focus shift with a variety of lenses..

Spherical Aberration

Diffuse haze at wide apertures..

Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration

Understanding Longitudinal (Axial) chromatic aberration (LOCA)..

Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration

Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (SLOCA)..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Sigma SD1 Merrill

Sigma/Foveon true-color sensor in a DSLR body..

Nikon D850

The best becomes better..

Nikon D810

Improvements on the workhorse D800E..

Nikon D800E

36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D600

Full-frame 24 megapixel DSLR..

Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 70-200mm f/2.8E FL ED VR

Nikon’s finest 70-200 zoom as of 2017..

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/4 ED VR and 70-200mm f/2.8 ED VR II

Which speed zoom for the Nikon D800/D800E?.

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II

Nikon’s bread and butter telephoto zoom.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 200mm f/2G ED VR II

Ultra fast 200mm with gorgeous bokeh and high resolving power..

Nikon D3x 24.4-megapixel DSLR review

Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..

Nikon vs Canon: noise and sharpness

Nikon vs Canon: Noise and Sharpness.

Canon 14mm f/2.8L II

In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..

Voigtlander 40mm f/2.8 SL II Color-Skopar

Ultra compact normal lens..

Canon TS-E 90mm f/2.8

Medium telephoto tilt/shift lens.

Canon TS-E 135mm f/4L Macro

Medium-long telephoto tilt/shift lens.

Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E

Ultra wide tilt/shift lens.

Nikon 85mm f/2.8D PC-E Micro-Nikkor

Medium telephoto tilt/shift macro focusing lens.

Shift Lenses for Nikon and Canon

[Older material, but still relevant]. Shift lens performance of Nikon/Canon/Schneider/Olympus on various cameras..

Landscape Photography at Wide Apertures

Escape the banale postcard look by shooting landscapes at f/1.4 or f/0.95..

Stimulating your photographic creativity

Approaches to making fresh new images..

Pentax K-1

36-megapixel full-frame DSLR with SuperRes Pixel Shift Mode..

Pentax HD DA 24-70mm f/2.8 SDM ED

Bread and butter zoom lens..

Pentax smc Pentax-D FA 100mm f/2.8 WR Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1..

Pentax HD DA Limited 15mm f/4 ED

APS-C wide angle lens equivalent to 22mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro

APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 40mm f/2.8

APS-C slightly tele normal lens equivalent to 60mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 70mm f/2.4

APS-C moderate telephoto equivalent to 105mm on full-frame..

Canon 24mm f/2.8 IS USM

Canon’s compact high-performance 24mm prime..

Canon 40mm f/2.8 STM

Canon’s tiny and lovely pancake lens..

Canon 50mm Lenses

Is Canon’s f/1.2 lens really better than an inexpensive f/1.4 or f/1.8?.

Canon 85mm f/1.4L IS USM

Canon’s best-ever medium telephoto and with image stabilization..

Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..

Canon 35mm f/2 IS

Canon’s image stabilized 35mm..

Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art

Fast constant-aperture ultrawide zoom..

Sigma 14-24mm f/2.8 DG HSM Art

Superwide optimized zoom lens..

Sigma 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

Mid-range optimized groundbreaking f/2 zoom..

Sigma 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

A whopping 4/3 stop faster than other lenses in its range..

Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..

Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast and affordable moderate excellent wide angle..

Sigma 40mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for outstanding performance..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..

Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s best portrait lens..

Sigma 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for class-leading performance?.

Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..

Sigma Telephoto APO Macro Lenses: 150mm, 180mm

Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..

Schneider PC-TS Super-Angulon 28mm f/4.5 HM Aspheric

Wide angle tilt/shift lens at 28mm..

Nikon 45mm f/2.8P

Ultra compact pancake lens with nice bokeh.

Nikon 50mm f/1.2 AIS

Nikon’s classic high speed normal lens.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s High Performance Moderately-Priced 50mm..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 58mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s High performance normal lens.

Nikon AF Micro Nikkor 200mm f/4.0D IF-ED

Nikon’s workhorse 200mm macro lens, and not just sharp at close-ups!.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 20mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8E ED VR

Versatile image-stabilized mid-range zoom..

Olympus Zuiko Auto-S 50mm f/1.2

An ultra-fast older design still offers appeal on modern digital..

Nikon AF-S 60mm f/2.8G Macro

Comparing the new Nikon 60mm to its predecessors, and the Coastal Optics 60/4 APO..

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..

Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Canon 16-35mm f/2.8L III

Is the 3rd time the charm?.

Canon 16-35mm f/4L IS

Canon’s compact image stabilized wide angle zoom..

Canon 24-70mm f/2.8L II and 24-70mm f/4L IS

Canon’s premium mid-range zooms..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 35mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.8G

Relatively inexpensive alternative to the pro 35/1.4G..

Nikon AF-S 85mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 105mm f/1.4E ED

Nikon’s best-ever f/1.4 lens?.

Nikon 105mm f/2 DC

Strong telephoto lens with special control over spherical aberration..

Nikon AF-S 300mm f/4E PF ED VR

Compact and lightweight travel-friendly telephoto..

Canon 200mm f/2L IS USM

A review of Canon’s 200mm f/2L mini super telephoto. Not just for sports, it makes a great landscape lens..

Canon EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 100-400mm zoom.

Canon-Wide Angle Prime Lenses

Comparing the 16-35mm f/2.8L II to most of Canon’s wide angle prime lenses. Optical performance, ergonomics, focus, build quality..

Nikon AF 16mm f/2.8D Fisheye

Exploring the 16mm fisheye for landscape photography, and correcting fisheye distortion..

Nikon AF-S 14-24mm f/2.8G ED

Nikon’s ultra wide angle zoom and the Nikon 14mm f/2.8, critical focus shift behavior..

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Focus Shift In-Depth

Focus shift assesments of a wide variety of lenses of various brands. Shows a range of apertures for each lens and the mount of focus shift, discusses how to compensate for it..

Medium Format Magazine

Articles written for MediumFormat.com..

Fujifilm GFX 50s

Fujifilm skips full-frame to go from APS-C to to medium format..

Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 R LM WR

Mid-range zoom lens equivalent to 26-53mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8 R WR

Moderate wide angle equivalent to 37mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 110mm f/2 R WR

Ultra high speed telephoto equivalent to 90mm f/1.6..

Fujifilm GF 120mm f/4 Macro R LM OIS WR

High performance macro photography on medium format, equivalent to 99mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 250mm f/4 OIS R WR

Telephoto equivalent to 200mm lens. .

Hasselblad H6D-100C

How does the very best perform in the field?.

Hasselblad HC 50mm f/3.5 II

High performance moderate wide angle.

Hasselblad HC Macro 120mm f/4 II

High performance all-arounder macro lens.

Hasselblad X1D

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses..

Hasselblad X1D Imaging Quality

Performance both in the field and controlled conditions..

Hasselblad XCD 21mm f/4

18mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 30mm f/3.5

25mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2

Medium format telephoto lens, 74mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 120mm f/3.5

Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..

Pentax 645D 40-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

A price/performance breakthrough?.

Pentax 645Z Overall

50-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR with Live View.

Pentax 645Z Image Quality

High end image quality, but what about lenses?.

Pentax 645 Lenses (645D tests)

A variety of 645 lens tests on the 645D.

Pentax SMC DA 645 25mm f/4 AL (IF) SDM AW

Ultra wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax HD 35mm f/3.5 AL [IF]

Moderate wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax 645 90mm f/2.8 D FA 645 Macro ED AW SR

Medium telephoto macro lens for Pentax 645 digital and film..

Hasselblad H4D 50 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Hasselblad’s 3rd generation medium format entry measure up?.

Rolleiflex Hy6 Mod 2 Medium Format System

Lens performance at 80 megapixels..

Leica S2 37.5 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Leica’s medium format entry measure up in ergonomics, image quality, etc?.

Leica S Examples

Examples and comparison from the various lenses.

Leica S Typ 006

The last CCD-sensor Leica S model..

Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH

All-arounder zoom for Leica S.

Leica 100mm f/2 Summicron-S ASPH

The fastest S lens..

Shooting Considerations

All about shooting in infrared..

Image Quality Issues

Unique challenges of digital infrared..

Milvus 15mm f/2.8

Milvus garb for the venerable 15/2.8 Distagon, with improved lens coating..

Milvus 18mm f/2.8

An outstanding 18mm design..

Milvus 21mm f/2.8

The classic 21/2.8 Distagon improved..

Milvus 35mm f/1.4

Highest performing 35mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 35mm f/2

Classic design in the latest Milvus build..

Milvus 50mm f/1.4

Outstanding build and optical quality in a normal lens..

Milvus 50mm f/2M

The classic 50/2 Makro-Planar improved..

Milvus 85mm f/1.4

Outstanding build and optical quality in a medium tele..

Milvus 100mm f/2M

The classic 100/2 Makro-Planar improved..

Milvus 135mm f/2

An Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..

Introduction

Start here to best utilize this guide..

Optical Performance

Sharpness and rendering..

15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..

18mm f/3.5 Distagon

A brilliant, but also colorful character..

21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .

25mm f/2 Distagon

Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..

25mm f/2.8 Distagon

A gem with unusual close-focus..

28mm f/2 Distagon

An artist’s drawing tool..

35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Strokes of a master..

35mm f/2 Distagon

Balance and poise..

50mm f/1.4 Planar

Brilliant imaging in a compact package..

50/1.4 Planar vs 50/2 Makro-Planar

Comparing the two 50mm options near and far, more comparisons coming..

50mm f/2 Makro-Planar

Versatility in a “normal” lens and macro too!.

Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Fast high performance APO wide angle..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and beauty..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar

Ultra high performance apochromatic medium telephoto, overview and technical..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..

85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Night Vision

Peering into shadows at night with the very best..

Otus 100mm f/1.4 APO-Sonnar

Razor sharp with gorgeous bokeh..

85mm f/1.4 Planar

True-to-life imagery..

100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..

135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..

Zeiss LensSpire Articles

Articles written for Lenspire.ZEISS.com..

Recommended Photo Gear

Stuff I use..

Depth of Field

[ARCHIVE, see Making Sharp Images]. Exploring depth of field..

Diffraction

The limits of resolution are governed by physics..

Subjective Lens Qualities

Also known as shading..

Brand-new Blur

Blurry lenses right out of the box..

Ask Lloyd Chambers

Questions and answers on photography and computers and more..

Photo Tips

Photography Hints and Tips..

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon.

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Lenses for Leica M8, Leica M9, M*

Lenses for Leica M cameras, especially the M9.

Nikon D200 vs D2x

Vintage 2006 comparative review of Nikon D200 vs Nikon D2x..

Canon RF 50mm f/1.2L USM

High speed normal lens optimized for Canon mirrorless..

Canon RF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM

Bread and butter all-around zoom..

Canon RF 28-70mm f/2L USM

Bread and butter all-around zoom..

Nikon Z7 Overview, Setup, General

Setup, IBIS performance, focusing..

Nikon Z7 IBIS and Focusing

Setup, IBIS performance, focusing..

Nikon Z7 Image Quality

Image quality..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 35mm f/1.8 S

Moderate wide angle expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S

Ultra wide compact zoom for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/2.8 S

Fast mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/4 S

Mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Sony Alpha A7R II

Attention to details: a big upgrade over the A7R..

Sony Alpha A7R

Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..

Sony FE 28mm f/2

Fast wide angle..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 Distagon ZA

Fast and gorgeous moderate wide angle Zeiss design..

Sony Planar T* FE 50mm f/1.4 ZA

Fast high performance normal lens of Zeiss design..

Sony FE 35mm f/2.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact moderate wide angle for Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 55mm f/1.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact normal lens for full-frame Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 85mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade medium telephoto..

Sony FE 100mm f/2.8 STF GM

Razor sharp medium telephoto with apodization filter..

Sony 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS

Native-mount macro length designed by Zeiss..

Sony FE 135mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade telephoto..

Rokinon 12mm f/2.8 Fisheye

Fisheye lens for Sony mirrorless..

Voigtlander FE Heliar-Hyper 10mm f/5.6 Aspherical III

Anything wider would be a fisheye..

Voigtlander FE 21mm f/1.4 Aspherical

Fast high performance manual focus wide angle..

Voigtlander FE Nokton Classic 35mm f/1.4

Fast lens speed with curious rendering..

Voigtlander FE Nokton 40mm f/1.2 Aspherical

Fast lens speed for versatile rendering..

Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 Macro APO-Lanthar Aspherical

Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..

Voigtlander Nokton 42.5mm f/0.95

Ultra fast medium telephoto manual focus lens..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/4 ZA OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact ultra-wide zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/2.8 GM

Premiere mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

Wide mid-range zoom targeted at video shooters..

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS

Premiere telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Venus Optics Laowa 15mm f/4 Macro

Extreme wide angle macro lens for Sony mirrorless..

Venus Optics Laowa 105mm f/2 STF

Manual focus apodized lens for ultra smooth focus..

Samyang FE 14mm f/2.8

Ultra wide angle lens adapted from DSLR, native E-mount, all manual..

Samyang FE 24mm T/1.5

Wide angle lens adapted from DSLR, native E-mount, all manual..

ALLVIEW—Any Lens Live View Camera

Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD.

Leica M Lenses on Olympus OM-D E-M5

Does pricey M glass deliver on mirrorless?.

Fujifilm Finepix X100

The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot RX1R II

Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..

Sony DSC-RX10 III

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and wide range zoom..

The Four Thirds and Micro Four Thirds Format

General things to know about Four Thirds and Micro Four Thirds..

Olympus Zuiko 12-40mm f/2.8 PRO Zoom

A high performance mid-range zoom..

Olympus M.ZUIKO DIGITAL 60mm f/2.8 ED Macro

Native Micro Four Thirds macro lens..

Olympus Zuiko 45mm f/1.8 ED

Olympus lenses for Micro Four Thirds cameras..

Olympus Zuiko 75mm f/1.8 ED Telephoto

Beautiful bokeh, long reach fast speed, compact lens..

Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 300mm f/4 IS PRO

Super telephoto with superb bokeh and color correction..

Panasonic Lumix G 8mm f/3.5 Fisheye

A fisheye with great contrast and high resolving power..

Panasonic Leica DG Vario-Elmarit 8-18mm f/2.8-4 ASPH

Compact wide angle equivalent to 16-36mm..

Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 15mm f/1.7 ASPH Micro 4/3

A weak sibling covers the wide end.

Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 25mm f/1.4 ASPH Micro 4/3

A fast and lovely 'normal' lens (50mm equiv) for Micro 4/3..

Panasonic Leica DG Nocticron 42.5mm f/1.2 ASPH

Fast, bright and highly corrected medium telephoto..

Panasonic Leica DG Elmarit 200mm f/2.8 POWER O.I.S.

High performance super telephoto..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Olympus OM-D E-M5

Superb ergonomic design in a compact camera..

Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II

Updated model with HighRes sensor shift mode..

Comparisons across format.

Can smaller sensor cameras compete with larger ones on any basis?.

Panasonic G-1 micro-4/3 camera

Panasonic G-1 especially compared to the Olympus E-P1. Intriguing results with RAW vs in-camera JPEG. RAW file included for your own analysis..

Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS

Wide angle zoom equivalent to 15-36mm.

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 18-55mm f/2.8-4 R

Fujifilm’s kit zoom for the X-E1.

Fujifilm XF 23mm f/1.4 R

Compact moderate wide angle..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 35mm f/1.4 R

A fast normal lens..

Fujifilm XF 35mm f/2 R WR

Compact normal lens..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 56mm f/1.2

A bright short telephoto lens..

Fujifilm XF 90mm f/2 R LM WR

Medium-long fast telephoto..

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-5N

24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..

Sony Alpha A6000

Value camera: 24 megapixel APS-C sensor with EVF and vibration-free shutter..

Metabones SpeedBooster for Sony NEX

Use DSLR lenses at ~native focal length, and gain a stop of speed..

Zeiss Loxia 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..

Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..

Zeiss Loxia 35mm f/2 Biogon

Manual focus moderate wide angle for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Loxia 50mm f/2 Planar

Manual focus normal lens for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Loxia 85mm f/2.4 Sonnar

Manual focus telephoto lens for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis (Overview)

Zeiss autofocus lenses Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon

Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon

Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 40mm f/2

All-around slightly wide angle/normal with close focus..

Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Leica X Vario

Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..

Sigma dp0 Quattro

21mm f/5.6 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma dp2 Quattro

45mm f/2.8 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma DP1 Merrill

28mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP2 Merrill

45mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP3 Merrill

75mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Leica M10

Leica M mount in slim body with SL-type sensor..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To Full Frame Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance across cameras..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To APS-C Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance vs APS-C cameras..

Leica M Monochrom Typ 246

24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..

Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..

Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s widest prime lens..

Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fastest and widest lens..

Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 21mm..

Leica 24mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast wide angle..

Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..

Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast 28mm..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..

Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH (2010 FLE)

Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..

Leica M 50mm Lenses

Six models to choose from..

Leica 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH

World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..

50/0.95 Noctilux Rendering Style

Understanding the Rendering Style of the Noctilux..

Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s superlative normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

The world’s best 50mm lens is outstanding, but with some limits..

Leica 75mm f/1.25 Noctilux-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra high grade and ultra fast modern short telephoto..

Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s medium tele for Leica M..

Leica 75mm f/2.4 (2.5) Summarit-M

Leica’s budget 75mm medium telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M

Leica’s retro telephoto..

Shooting Leica R Lenses on Leica M

General discussion of R lenses on M..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Leica 100mm f/2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R

Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..

Leica 180mm f/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R

World’s best mid-range telephoto lens..

Leica 280mm f/4 APO-Telyt-R

Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..

Zeiss ZM 15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Notes and examples..

Zeiss ZM 21mm f/2.8 Biogon

Moderate speed high contrast ultra-wide..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Zeiss ZM 85mm f/4 Tele-Tessar

Compact high performance medium telephoto..

Voigtlander M 50mm f/1.1

A slightly slower, but smaller and lighter alternative to the Noctilux, at 1/10 the price..

ALLVIEW— Any Lens Live View Camera

ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD, and especially Leica M-mount.
HISTORICAL, please see Guide to Mirrorless..


Blog posts, reverse chronological

2019

2019-05-26 Focus Shift, a General Discussion

2018

2018-10-26 Shootout @ 35mm, Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/4 S vs 35mm f/1.8 S: Stand of Bare Aspen by Creek

2018-10-09 Nikon Z7: Image Sharpness vs Zone of Focus, Autofocus Error and Mitigation

2018-08-01 Is It the End of the Development Road for Leica M Cameras? (Updated with Reader Comments)

2018-06-24 Nikon 105mm f/2 DC: Comparing the Defocus Control (DC) Feature

2018-06-22 Bokeh Shootout: Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M vs Nikon 105mm f/2 DC: Bird of Paradise

2017

2017-11-13 Depth of Field Akin to f/128: an Incredible Near-Far Focus Stack with the Zeiss Milvus 18mm f/2.8

2017-10-27 Nikon D850: 'Focus shift shooting' Feature Most Important Feature since Live View; Focus Stacking is the ONLY Solution to Full Resolution Images

2017-09-26 Sigma 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art Aperture Series: Dead and Live Aspen, Dusk

2017-08-10 Fujifilm GFX 50s Firmware Update Might Degrade Focusing by Stopping Down?

2017-08-09 Sony 16-35mm f/2.8 GM: Single Frame Performance at f/9 vs Focus Stacking at f/9 (Bristlecone Log Low View)

2017-04-13 Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 @32mm Focus Stack: Barroom Interior

2017-02-24 Sigma Announces 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art for Nikon and Canon DSLRs and Sigma sa

2016

2016-12-02 Want a Fast Lens for Micro Four Thirds? HandeVision IBELUX 40mm f/0.85 is 71% Off

2016-10-15 Reader Question: Focusing with Sony Mirrorless

2016-09-19 Olympus 25mm f/1.2 PRO

2016-09-04 Focus Stacking with Sony 85/1.4 GM: Getting that Impossible Depth of Field for Landscape Scenes

2016-09-01 Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 12mm f/1.4 ASPH

2016-08-28 Focus Stacking: Banishes Depth of Field Limitations for Many Field Images

2016-07-26 Perception and Imaging

2016-07-19 An In-Depth Look at Focus Stacking in 'Making Sharp Images'

2016-07-16 Stacking Two Frames for Impossible Depth of Field

2016-07-15 Depth of field and Sharpness: Conventional Thinking is Unrealistic Going Forward, Focus Stacking is One Solution

2016-02-25 Reader Comment on Pentax K3 II Super Resolution Mode: “Museum Artifact Work”

2015

2015-12-28 End of the Year: 3 Days Left for Small Business to Write off that new Computer, Camera, etc

2015-12-22 Recommended Computer Upgrades, B&H Free Overnight + Small Business Deduction Note

2015-12-14 End of the Year: Time for Small Business Owners to Consider Getting that new Computer Gear, etc

2015-10-22 The Irrational Aim of f/1.4 Lenses

2015-07-16 Left/Right Zone of Focus Skew: Not Always the Lens, the Sensor and Lens Mount Might not be Plane-Parallel

2015-05-26 Zeiss Batis: Notes on OLED Display, Distance and Depth of Field Scales

2015-04-22 Zeiss Announces 'Batis' line: Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon and Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

2015-04-09 Table of f-stops: Full Stops, 1/2 Stops, 1/3 Stops (Depth of Field)

2015-03-26 Reviewed: Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

2014

2014-05-25 Format Equivalent Depth of Field: APS-C vs Full Frame

2014-05-21 Increasing Depth of Field via Focus Stacking (Wagon, 280/4 APO)

2014-05-21 Bypassing Normal Depth of Field Limitations Using a Tilt/Shift Lens: Landscape Usage (Lembert Dome)

2014-05-19 Tilt/Shift Lenses: Focusing for Optimal Tilt Placement + Focus Peaking Assist

2014-05-19 Format Equivalent Depth of Field: a Non-Alcoholic Demonstration (Micro Four Thirds vs Full Frame)

2014-05-18 Using Tilt (Swing) to Isolate a Subject

2014-05-18 Bypassing Normal Depth of Field Limitations Using a Tilt/Shift Lens

2014-05-09 Format Equivalent Depth of Field, Depth of Field at the Periphery

2014-05-03 Depth of Field with Real Lenses

2013

2013-09-15 Fujifilm XF 23mm f/1.4 R

2013-08-10 New Features for Finding Stuff at diglloyd.com

2013-07-26 Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH: Glacial Erratics and Focus Placement (Leica M Typ 240)

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Summary

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Size and Weight Realities

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Lens Size

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Aspect Ratio

2013-07-12 Focus Bracketing for Peak Sharpness with a 15mm Lens

2013-07-11 A 15mm Lens has “Huge Depth of Field”, Right?

2013-04-26 APS-C Emerges as “the new full frame quality” + the Sagging Momentum of Micro Four Thirds (m4/3)

2013-04-17 Sigma DP2 Merrill Sharpness: Impressive Sharpness and Realized Depth of Field

2013-01-14 Metabones Speed Booster — Comments from the Designer

2012

2012-05-22 Exploiting the Sensor Resolution: Depth of Field on the Nikon D800E

2012-05-16 Reader Asks: Depth of Field

2012-04-26 Optimal Aperture for Nikon D800

2012-03-08 Thoughts on Canon EOS 5D Mark III, 22.3 Megapixels

2012-03-07 Diffraction, Sharpness and Nikon D800E

2012-02-09 What Does Depth of Field Mean on a 36 Megapixel Camera?

2010

2010-06-14 Landscape photography at f/0.95 in Patriarch Grove

2010-06-03 Depth of field with a fast lens in daylight

2010-04-12 Carl Zeiss on “Depth of Field and Bokeh”

2008

2008-11-11 Tip of the day: Depth of field

2008-10-21 Selective depth of field

2008-09-03 Question of the Day: 18mm, 25mm, 28mm?

2008-06-26 Depth of field, diffraction, and megapixels

2008-05-03 Depth of field

2007

2007-12-25 Zeiss ZF 28/2 Distagon—depth of field

2007-08-14 A herd of words

2007-02-17 Depth of field

2006

2006-10-15 How far to stop down for adequate depth of field?

2006-07-20 Depth of field and megapixels

Sony A7R IV


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