image of
Related image

Scroll down to see all publications and blog posts. Not all pages are curated—search.

Bokeh and Blur

How a lens blurs when out of focus is a Big Deal..

Sharpness and Blur by Optics

Blur from optical behavior or subject-related issue..

Sharpness and Zone of Focus

Sharpness loss by focusing or zone of sharp focus..

Blur from Camera or Support

Sharpness loss by camera or support or technique..


Glossary and further reading..

Digital Sensor Technology

Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film..

Ray Angle, Vignetting, Color Shading on a Digital Sensor

Evenness of illumination, color shading, digital sensor effects, ray angle..

Post Processing for Sharpness

Making image captures look sharp..

Photoshop How-To

Working with Photoshop for raw conversion and more. .

Faux HDR and High Dynamic Range

Tips for processing high dynamic range images. .

Frame Averaging

Maximizing dynamic range and image quality by minimizing noise via multiple exposures..

Expose To The Right (ETTR)

Maximizing image quality, dynamic range, minimizing digital noise. .

How To Get Peak Sharpness With Perfect Focus

Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..

How To Banish Blur Whether Handheld or Tripod

Using your camera’s mirror lockup, self timer, and Live View features..

Depth of Field

Controlling the zone of sharp detail..

Focus Stacking Overview

Bypass the limits on depth of field and diffraction..

Focus Stacking Examples

Examples of Focus Stacking..


Getting peak performance from your lens.

Field Curvature

Zone of focus, not plane of focus.

Understanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..

Vignetting (Field Illumination)

Evenness of illumination across the frame and related effects..


Understanding astigmatism..

Camera and Lens Tolerances

Sharpness issues related to camera and lens tolerances and build quality..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Research — Handheld Shooting

Research into sharpness of handheld images with and without image stabilization.

Monochrome Overview


Monochrome and Color Sensor Capture

Considerations for image capture..

RAW-File Conversion for Monochrome Sensors

Converting monochrome raw files to working images..

Converting Color Images to Monochrome

Techniques for converting color to monochrome..

Examples and How They Were Made

Examples of how images were made...

Image Rendition

Visible spectrum, cameras, color space, infrared vs. color & examples..

Cameras and Examples

Infrared camera choices with examples.

Image Quality Issues

Unique challenges of digital infrared..

Wrap-up and Summary

Conclusions and where to find products and additional information..

Canon Lenses vs Infrared

How Canon lenses perform for infrared use..

Nikon Lenses vs Infrared

How Nikon-compatible lenses perform for infrared use..

Panasonic S1R

High-resolution L-mount full-frame from Panasonic..

Panasonic S1R Multi-Shot High-Res Mode

Evaluating Multi-Shot High-Res Mode..

Panasonic Lumix S 24-105mm f/4 Macro OIS

All-arounder entry-level mid-range zoom for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S PRO 50mm f/1.4

Premium fast normal lens for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S PRO 70-200mm f/4 OIS

Image stabilized classic 70-200mm for L-Mount..

Sigma L-Mount

Sigma 28mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art.

Leica SL2

47 megapixel with Multi-Shot Hi-Res mode..

Leica SL

24-Megapixel vs mirrorless..

Leica 28mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short wide angle lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 35mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast apochromatic prime/wide lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-SL ASPH

Fast apochromatic prime lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short normal lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short telephoto lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short telephoto lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 16-35mm f/3.5-4.5 Super-Vario-Elmar-SL ASPH

Ultra wide angle premium zoom lens relying on distortion correction..

Leica 24-90mm f/2.8-4 Vario-Elmarit-SL ASPH OIS

All-arounder zoom with dubious optical compromises..

Sigma SD1 Merrill

Sigma/Foveon true-color sensor in a DSLR body..

Nikon D850

The best becomes better..

Nikon D810

Improvements on the workhorse D800E..

Nikon D800E

36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D800 / D800E Image Quality Best Practices

Image quality best practices and how-to with the Nikon D800/D800E..

Nikon D800E vs D800

D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..

Nikon D800 Monochrome Conversion by

D800 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..

Nikon D850 Monochrome Conversion by

D850 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..

Nikon D600

Full-frame 24 megapixel DSLR..

Nikon Df

Full-frame 16 megapixel Retro Style DSLR..

Nikon D800E vs Canon EOS 5D Mark III

Comparing the 2012/2013 high-res pro DSLRs..

Nikon D4

Nikon’s pro-body high speed low light wonder..

Nikon D5

High speed big brick shooter..

Nikon D3200

24-megapixel APS-C consumer DSLR..

Canon EOS 1D X

18 megapixel big black brick, Canon’s top of the line DSLR..

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

22 megapixel successor to the popular 5D Mark II..

Canon EOS 5DS / 5DS R

50 megapixel successor to the 22 megapixel Canon 5D Mark III..

Nikon D3s

Nikon D3s low-light versatile DSLR..

Nikon D3x 24.4-megapixel DSLR review

Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..

Noise ×4: Nikon D3x, Nikon D3, Canon 5D Mark II, & Canon 1Ds Mark III

Noise performance of early 2009’ premier digital SLRs. ISOs from 50 through 25600, dark area noise, noise reduction effects, noise versus resolution. Can more smaller pixels beat fewer large ones?.

Canon 1D Mark IV

Canon 1D Mark IV 16-megapixel DSLR..

Nikon vs Canon: noise and sharpness

Nikon vs Canon: Noise and Sharpness.

Canon 14mm f/2.8L II

In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..

Voigtlander 20mm f/3.5 Color-Skopar

Very compact ultra wide angle..

Tilt / Shift Lenses (General)

Basic tilt/shift lens concepts..

Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E

Ultra wide tilt/shift lens.

Shift Lenses for Nikon and Canon

[Older material, but still relevant]. Shift lens performance of Nikon/Canon/Schneider/Olympus on various cameras..

28mm Shift Lenses for Nikon

[Archive] In-depth review on the Nikon D2x of the Nikon 28mm f/3.5 PC-Nikkor, Nikon 28mm f/4 PC-Nikkor and the Schneider 28mm f/2.8 PC-Super-Angulon. Flare, distortion, color fringing, color rendition, sharpness, ergonomics, aligmnent, sample variation..

Pentax K-1 Mark II

Verions 2 — 36-megapixel full-frame DSLR with SuperRes Pixel Shift Mode..

Pentax K-1

36-megapixel full-frame DSLR with SuperRes Pixel Shift Mode..

Pentax K-3 II (APS-C)

24-megapixel APS-C DSLR with SuperResolution true-color..

Pentax K-3 (APS-C)

23-megapixel APS-C DSLR with an unusual feature set..

Pentax HD DA Limited 15mm f/4 ED

APS-C wide angle lens equivalent to 22mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 21mm f/3.2 AL

APS-C moderate wide angle lens equivalent to 33mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro

APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..

Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..

Sigma 14-24mm f/2.8 DG HSM Art

Superwide optimized zoom lens..

Sigma 20mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

The fastest extreme wide angle yet..

Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..

Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast and affordable moderate excellent wide angle..

Sigma 40mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for outstanding performance..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..

Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s best portrait lens..

Sigma 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for class-leading performance?.

Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..

Sigma Telephoto APO Macro Lenses: 150mm, 180mm

Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..

Sigma Super Tele Varifocal 120-300mm f/2.8 DG OS HSM S

Sigma’s fast an flexible moderate super telephoto..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 58mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s High performance normal lens.

Nikon 58mm f/1.2 NOCT-Nikkor

Nikon’s sought-after high speed aspheric slightly long normal lens..

Olympus Zuiko Auto-S 50mm f/1.2

An ultra-fast older design still offers appeal on modern digital..

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..

Canon EF 8-15mm f/4L Fisheye Zoom

State of the art design in a never before seen fisheye zoom..

Canon EF 11-24mm f/4L USM

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L III

Is the 3rd time the charm?.

Nikon AF-S 200-500mm f/5.6E ED VR

Relatively compact super-telephoto zoom..

Nikon AF 16mm f/2.8D Fisheye

Exploring the 16mm fisheye for landscape photography, and correcting fisheye distortion..

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Samyang 14mm f/2.8

Ultra wide angle lens for Canon and Nikon..

Medium Format Magazine

Articles written for

Phase One XF and XT Full-Frame Medium Format

Phase One XF System, Phase One IQ4, Schneider Kreuznach Lenses.

Schneider Kreuznach LS 35mm f/3.5

Wide angle 24mm equivalent for Phase One XF system.

Schneider Kreuznach LS 80mm f/2.8

Compact normal 54mm equivalent for Phase One XF system.

Schneider Kreuznach LS 150mm f/2.8 IF

Medium telephoto 100mm equivalent for Phase One XF system.

Fujifilm GFX, General

100 megapixels in a portable package!.

Fujifilm GFX100S/100 Comparisons

Is 100 better than 45/50/60 megapixels?.

Fujifilm GFX100S

100 megapixels in a body the size of a 35mm DSLR!.

Fujifilm GFX100

100 megapixels in a portable package!.

Fujifilm GFX100 Focus Stacking and FOCUS BKT

100 megapixels in a portable package!.

Fujifilm GFX100 Image Quality

Aspects of image quality..

Fujifilm GFX 50s

Fujifilm skips full-frame to go from APS-C to to medium format..

Adapting Other Lenses to Fujifilm GFX

Adapting lenses delivers degraded results in most cases..

Fujifilm GFX 50R

Compact “rangefinder inspired” form factor to the GFX 50S sibling..

Fujifilm GFX 50R Operational Aspects

Experience, reader insights, etc..

Fujifilm GFX 50S/R Image Processing

Tips on getting the best results..

Fujifilm GFX 50S Image Quality

Image quality assessments..

Fujifilm GF 20-35mm f/4 R WR

Compact wide angle.

Fujifilm GF 23mm f/4 R WR

Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .

Fujifilm GF 30mm f/3.5 R LM WR

Compact wide angle.

Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 R LM WR

Mid-range zoom lens equivalent to 26-53mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 35-70mm f/4.5-5.6

Compact wide angle.

Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8 R WR

Moderate wide angle equivalent to 37mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 45-100mm f/4 R LM OIS WR

Slightly long zoom lens equivalent to 37-82mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 50mm f/3.5 R LM WR

Slightly wide compact normal lens equivalent to 41mm f/2.9..

Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 80mm f/1.7 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 66mm f/1.4..

Fujifilm GF 110mm f/2 R WR

Ultra high speed telephoto equivalent to 90mm f/1.6..

Hasselblad H6D-100C

How does the very best perform in the field?.

Hasselblad HC 50mm f/3.5 II

High performance moderate wide angle.

Hasselblad HC Macro 120mm f/4 II

High performance all-arounder macro lens.

  1. MTF

Hasselblad X2D 100C

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses, 3rd generation..

Hasselblad X1D

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses..

Hasselblad X1D Imaging Quality

Performance both in the field and controlled conditions..

Optimal Images from Hasselblad X1D

Tips on Getting the Best Results..

Hasselblad XCD 21mm f/4

18mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 30mm f/3.5

25mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 35-75mm f3.5-4.5

Normal lens equivqlent to 53mm..

Hasselblad XCD 38mm f/2.5 V

Normal lens equivqlent to 32mm..

Hasselblad XCD 45mm f/3.5

37mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 65mm f/2.8

Normal lens equivqlent to 53mm..

Hasselblad XCD 80mm f/1.9

Moderate telephoto..

Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2

Medium format telephoto lens, 74mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 135mm f/2.8

Moderate telephoto..

Pentax 645D 40-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

A price/performance breakthrough?.

Pentax 645Z Overall

50-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR with Live View.

Pentax 645Z Image Quality

High end image quality, but what about lenses?.

Pentax 645 Lenses (645D tests)

A variety of 645 lens tests on the 645D.

Pentax SMC DA 645 25mm f/4 AL (IF) SDM AW

Ultra wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax 645 90mm f/2.8 D FA 645 Macro ED AW SR

Medium telephoto macro lens for Pentax 645 digital and film..

Hasselblad H4D 50 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Hasselblad’s 3rd generation medium format entry measure up?.

Rolleiflex Hy6 Mod 2 Medium Format System

Lens performance at 80 megapixels..

Mamiya DL28 medium format 28 megapixel system

The Mamiya DL28 offers the Mamiya 645 AFD III, the new Sekor AF 80mm f/2.8D lens and the Leaf Aptus-II 6 digital back. Image quality is outstanding and the DL28 should definitely be considered by anyone looking into medium format..

Leica S2 37.5 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Leica’s medium format entry measure up in ergonomics, image quality, etc?.

Leica S Examples

Examples and comparison from the various lenses.


Lenses for the Leica S2 (original Leica S2 material).

Leica S Typ 006

The last CCD-sensor Leica S model..

Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH

All-arounder zoom for Leica S.

Leica 45mm f/2.8 Elmarit-S ASPH

Moderate wide angle with low distortion..

Milvus 21mm f/2.8

The classic 21/2.8 Distagon improved..

Milvus 25mm f/1.4

Highest performing 25mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 35mm f/1.4

Highest performing 35mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 35mm f/2

Classic design in the latest Milvus build..

Milvus 50mm f/2M

The classic 50/2 Makro-Planar improved..

Milvus 85mm f/1.4

Outstanding build and optical quality in a medium tele..

Milvus 135mm f/2

An Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..


Start here to best utilize this guide..

Zeiss Lens Design and Know-How

Background information on Zeiss lens designs and optics..

Optical Performance

Sharpness and rendering..

15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..

18mm f/3.5 Distagon

A brilliant, but also colorful character..

ZF.2/ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .

25mm f/2 Distagon

Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..

25mm f/2.8 Distagon

A gem with unusual close-focus..

28mm f/2 Distagon

An artist’s drawing tool..

35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Strokes of a master..

35mm f/2 Distagon

Balance and poise..

50mm f/1.4 Planar

Brilliant imaging in a compact package..

50mm f/2 Makro-Planar

Versatility in a “normal” lens and macro too!.

Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Fast high performance APO wide angle..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and beauty..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..

Otus 100mm f/1.4 APO-Sonnar

Razor sharp with gorgeous bokeh..

85mm f/1.4 Planar

True-to-life imagery..

100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..

135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..


Summary and wrap-up..

Zeiss LensSpire Articles

Articles written for

Recommended Photo Gear

Stuff I use..

Understanding optics

Understanding lens performance..

Depth of Field

[ARCHIVE, see Making Sharp Images]. Exploring depth of field..


The limits of resolution are governed by physics..

Subjective Lens Qualities

Also known as shading..


Focus accuracy and focus shift..

Misc Reviews

Miscellaneous reviews..

Lens and Camera Issues

Good stuff and not so good stuff..

Brand-new Blur

Blurry lenses right out of the box..

NEC Wide-Gamut Displays for Photographers

See the color that is really there!.

Software issues.

[ARCHIVE] Software and related for photographers..

The Apple Mac Pro

[ARCHIVE] Various considerations for buying a Mac Pro..

Photo Tips

Photography Hints and Tips..

Grab Bag

Various articles..

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon.

15mm f/2.8 Distagon Zeiss Interview

Q&A on the 15/2.8 Distagon with Dr. Hubert Nasse.

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A reference lens for color correction..

Nikon lenses

Overview and assessments of Nikon lenses.

Leica S2 37.5 Medium Format DSLR

Leica S2 37.5 megapixel DSLR and its lenses..

Lenses for Leica M8, Leica M9, M*

Lenses for Leica M cameras, especially the M9.


Beyond deep red, seeing the invisible..

Infrared Cameras Compared

Infrared Cameras Compared: Fuji S3 Pro UVIR, Nikon D70-IR, Canon EOS 5D-IR ..

Nikon D200 vs D2x

Vintage 2006 comparative review of Nikon D200 vs Nikon D2x..

Canon EOS R

Canon’s first full-frame mirrorless..

Canon EOS R5

Canon’s high-res mirrorless..

Canon RF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM

Bread and butter all-around zoom..

Canon RF 28-70mm f/2L USM

Bread and butter all-around zoom..

Canon RF 35mm f/1.8 Macro STM

All-arounder compact lens with macro capability..

Canon RF 85mm f/1.2L USM

High speed portrait lens optimized for Canon mirrorless..

Nikon Z7 Image Quality

Image quality..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 20mm f/1.8 S

Fast ultra wide angle for Nikon Z..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S

Ultra wide compact zoom for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/2.8 S

Fast mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Sony A7R V

5th Generation standard-setting camera..

Sony A1

Technological tour de force..

Sony Alpha A7R IV

4th Generation standard-setting camera..

Sony Alpha A7R III

Attention to details: a solid upgrade over the A7R II..

Sony Alpha A7R II

Attention to details: a big upgrade over the A7R..

Sony Alpha A7R

Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..

Sony Alpha A7R Shutter Vibration

Vibration from the shutter highly damaging to image sharpness..

Sony Alpha A9

Blackout-free 20 fps speed demon..

Sony Alpha A7S II

High performance full frame 12-megapixel sensor..

Sony Alpha A7R II Kolarivision for Leica M

A7R II modified sensor cover glass for Leica M lens performance..

Sony Alpha A7S

Full frame compact 12-megapixel high-sensitivity sensor with 4K video..

Sony Alpha A7 II

Sensor stabilized 24MP full-frame..

Menus and Button Setup

How to configure the camera for serious shooting..

Sony FE 20mm f/1.8 G

Compact ultra-wide angle lens..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 GM

High performance mild wide-angle..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 Distagon ZA

Fast and gorgeous moderate wide angle Zeiss design..

Sony FE 35mm f/2.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact moderate wide angle for Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 50mm f/1.2 GM

High performance, high speed..

Sony FE 55mm f/1.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact normal lens for full-frame Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 85mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade medium telephoto..

Sigma FE 14-24mm f/2.8 DG DN Art

Native-mount ultra wide angle high performance zoom for mirrorless..

Sigma FE 24-70mm f/2.8 DG DN Art

Native-mount mid-range zoom for mirrorless..

Sigma FE 35mm f/1.2 DG DN Art

Ultra high speed native-mount moderate wide angle..

Voigtlander FE Super Wide-Heliar 15mm f/4.5 Aspherical III

Ultra wide native mount manual focus lens for Sony mirrorless..

Voigtlander FE 21mm f/1.4 Aspherical

Fast high performance manual focus wide angle..

Voigtlander FE 35mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

High-grade manual focus wide-normal lens..

Voigtlander FE 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

High-grade manual focus normal lens..

Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 Macro APO-Lanthar Aspherical

Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM

Fast extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/4 ZA OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact ultra-wide zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/4 OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS

Barely good-enough telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6 G OSS

Compact long range telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Lensbaby Velvet 56mm f/1.6

Special effect lens..

Samyang FE 24mm T/1.5

Wide angle lens adapted from DSLR, native E-mount, all manual..

ALLVIEW—Any Lens Live View Camera

Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD.

Ricoh GXR with A12 Mount for Leica M Lenses.

Use Leica M lenses on a digital back designed for them..

Leica M Lenses on Olympus OM-D E-M5

Does pricey M glass deliver on mirrorless?.

Fujifilm Finepix X100

The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.

Nikon Coolpix A

Fixed 28mm lens with APS-C sensor free of anti-aliasing blur with wonderful color..

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot RX1R II

Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..

Sony DSC-RX100

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and shoot tiny camera..


Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and wide range zoom..

The Four Thirds and Micro Four Thirds Format

General things to know about Four Thirds and Micro Four Thirds..

Olympus Zuiko SHG 14-35mm f/2 ED

Ultra high performance zoom lens..

Olympus Super High Grade (SHG) Four Thirds Lenses

Ultra high performance lenses..

Olympus M.Zuiko 7-14mm f/2.8 PRO

Wide angle zoom equivalent (14-28mm equivalent)..

Olympus Zuiko 12-40mm f/2.8 PRO Zoom

A high performance mid-range zoom..

Olympus Zuiko 75mm f/1.8 ED Telephoto

Beautiful bokeh, long reach fast speed, compact lens..

Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 25mm f/1.4 ASPH Micro 4/3

A fast and lovely 'normal' lens (50mm equiv) for Micro 4/3..

Panasonic Leica DG Nocticron 42.5mm f/1.2 ASPH

Fast, bright and highly corrected medium telephoto..

Panasonic Leica DG Elmarit 200mm f/2.8 POWER O.I.S.

High performance super telephoto..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Olympus OM-D E-M5

Superb ergonomic design in a compact camera..

Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II

Updated model with HighRes sensor shift mode..

Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II

Flagship model for 2017..

Comparisons across format.

Can smaller sensor cameras compete with larger ones on any basis?.

Olympus E-P1 micro-4/3 camera

Great image quality, but....

Panasonic G-1 micro-4/3 camera

Panasonic G-1 especially compared to the Olympus E-P1. Intriguing results with RAW vs in-camera JPEG. RAW file included for your own analysis..

Fujifilm X-E1

Compact sibling of the Fujifilm X-Pro1.

Fujifilm X-Pro1

Interchangeable lenses on a 16MP APS-C sensor.

Fujifilm X-Pro2

Fujifilm's 24MP APS-C offering..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 56mm f/1.2

A bright short telephoto lens..

Fujifilm XF 56mm f/1.2 APD

Apodization filter version of the 56/1.2..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 60mm f/2.4 R

Short telephoto macro lens..

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-5N

24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..

Sony Alpha A6000

Value camera: 24 megapixel APS-C sensor with EVF and vibration-free shutter..

Zeiss 24mm f/1.8 for Sony NEX

Moderate wide angle for Sony NEX..

Metabones SpeedBooster for Sony NEX

Use DSLR lenses at ~native focal length, and gain a stop of speed..

Zeiss Loxia 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..

Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..

Zeiss Loxia 35mm f/2 Biogon

Manual focus moderate wide angle for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon

Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon

Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 40mm f/2

All-around slightly wide angle/normal with close focus..

Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 135mm f/2.8 APO-Sonnar

Apochromatic pin-sharp medium telephoto for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Leica X Vario

Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..

Overview of Sigma Foveon Sensor cameras

Foveon X3 true-color sensor for outstanding resolution..

Sigma sd Quattro H

Mirrorless Sigma Quattro larger APS-H sensor with interchangeable lenses..

Sigma dp Quattro Cameras

Mid-2014 models with newly designed 3-layer APS-C sensor..

Sigma dp0 Quattro

21mm f/5.6 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma dp2 Quattro

45mm f/2.8 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma dp3 Quattro

75mm f/4 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma DP1 Merrill

28mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP2 Merrill

45mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP3 Merrill

75mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP-2 with Foveon X3 sensor

[Archive] Sigma DP-2 with the amazing Foveon X3 sensor (original, LOW RES camera, not a Merrill)..

Leica M11

Leica M 60 Megapixels..

Leica M10-R

Leica M 40 Megapixels..

Leica M10 Monochrom

Leica M 40 megapixel monochrome sensor..

Leica M10

Leica M mount in slim body with SL-type sensor..

Leica M Typ 240 In Use

Overall design and behavior..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To Full Frame Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance across cameras..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To APS-C Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance vs APS-C cameras..

Leica M Monochrom (original)

Ultimate resolution in black and white..

Leica M Monochrom Typ 246

24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..

Leica M Monochrom In the Field

Field shooting the Leica MM, and comparisons..

Leica Q (Typ 116)

24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..

Leica Q2

47-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..

Leica M9: User’s Guide and Review

High resolution digital rangefinder.

Leica M9 Rear LCD, Image Review

Modern digital features lacking with the M9..

Ray angle and Color Shading With M Lenses

Off-center color casts, off-center sharpness..

Considerations in choosing a lens.

Focal lengths, color, weight and travel considerations. [relevant, but dated/old material].

Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..

Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s widest prime lens..

Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fastest and widest lens..

Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 21mm..

Leica 24mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast wide angle..

Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..

Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast 28mm..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (2016)

Tweaked 2016 redesign..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..

Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH (2010 FLE)

Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..

Leica 35mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

High performance moderate wide angle..

Leica M 50mm Lenses

Six models to choose from..

Leica 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH

World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

High performance but flawed 50mm normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 Summicron-M

Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..

Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s medium tele for Leica M..

Leica 75mm f/2.4 (2.5) Summarit-M

Leica’s budget 75mm medium telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s longer tele for Leica M..

Leica 90mm f/4 Macro-Elmar-M

Diminutive telephoto and macro lens..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Leica 100mm f/2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R

Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..

Leica 280mm f/4 APO-Telyt-R

Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..

Zeiss ZM 15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Notes and examples..

Zeiss ZM 21mm f/4.5 C-Biogon

Zero distortion ultra-wide..

Zeiss ZM 25mm f/2.8 Biogon

Compact wide angle with brilliant contrast..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon on Leica SL

A star performer sets the standard on the SL..

Zeiss ZM 50mm f/2 Planar

Pleasing and relatively inexpensive normal lens.

Zeiss ZM 85mm f/4 Tele-Tessar

Compact high performance medium telephoto..

Voigtlander Nokton 35mm f/1.2 II ASPH

Fastest 35mm lens for Leica M, great ergonomics..

Voigtlander M 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

World-class performer for Leica M..


ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Terrific backup bodies or even primary body for M-mount lenses..

ALLVIEW— Any Lens Live View Camera

ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD, and especially Leica M-mount.
HISTORICAL, please see Guide to Mirrorless..

Blog posts, reverse chronological


2023-01-08 Sony A7R V Pixel Shift on Complex Outdoor Scenes: a Stunning Advance in Image Quality

2023-01-08 Reader Comment: Sony A7R V vs Sony A1 Pixel Shift, Focus Bracketing for Focus Stacking


2022-12-29 Sony Pixel Shift: Outstanding Results, but Botched Design for Motion Correction Ignores Benefits of Frame Averaging, Increases Noise —  OOPS

2022-12-26 Reader Comment: Sony A7R V Pixel Shift vs Demosaicing, Motion Correction, etc

2022-12-20 Sony Pixel Shift: Sony A7R V vs Sony A7R IV a Major Advance in Capture Detail

2022-12-15 Sony A7R V Pixel Shift with Motion Correction a Medium Format Killer?

2022-12-05 Sony A7R V: Costly Bad Design for Pixel Shift —  Disallows Lossless Compressed RAW

2022-10-26 Sony Debuts AI Technology in Sony A7R V

2022-09-10 Fujifilm GFX100S vs Hasselblad X2D 100C: Which is Better?

2022-09-07 Reviewing the Hasselblad X2D-100C When Available

2022-09-07 Hasselblad X2D features and commentary

2022-09-07 Announced: Hasselblad X2D-100C with 100 Megapixel Sensor, IBIS, Phase-Detect AF

2022-07-22 Fujifilm GFX100S: Does it Deliver Meaningfully More Detail than the Best 35mm? Or is it just an Oversampling Megapixels Poseur?

2022-05-04 Best Camera for You? Reader Comments

2022-03-22 Challenges of 100 Megapixels in 35mm Format?

2022-03-20 Ultra Sharp: Mamiya 150mm f/4.5 + FotodioX Pro Fusion Smart Adapter for Fujifilm Medium Format

2022-03-16 Frame Averaging: How it Should Work on Every Camera

2022-02-17 Fujifilm GFX100S: Which Mid-Range Lenses?

2022-02-13 Olympus OM-1 Announced, Available for PreOrder

2022-02-11 Compact, Enjoyable Medium Format that Might Surprise and Delight — Fujifilm GFX-50R just $2999

2022-01-20 Leica M11 Electronic Shutter: what is the Sensor Readout Transit Time?

2022-01-19 Reader Comment: Leica M11 vs Sony A7RIV Sensors, Monochrome Potential

2022-01-16 The Leica M11 is the Best M Camera Ever — and One that I’d Like to Own

2022-01-13 The $10K 60MP Leica M11 Announced


2021-12-12 Interest in Nikon Z9 and the Newer Nikon NIKKOR Z Lenses? (UPDATED with reader comments)

2021-12-06 What’s Next for Fujifilm GFX100S? What about a Sony Medium Format?

2021-10-17 NEW: Voigtlander M 90mm f/2.8 APO-Skopar for Leica M, and Voigtlander 90mm f/2.8 APO-Skopar SL IIs for Nikon F-Mount

2021-09-21 DEFINITIVE SHOOTOUT: Leica SL2 vs Panasonic S1R Sharpness with Leica SL Lenses: View North Over Puppy Dome

2021-09-11 Infrared Leakage to 850nm with Leica SL2?

2021-09-07 Reader Question: Aggressive Monochrome Processing using Panasonic S1R vs Leica SL2

2021-09-02 Fujifilm Medium Format Elbows into 35mm Territory: Fujifilm GFX50S II and Fujifilm GF 35-70mm f/4.5-5.6

2021-08-28 Sensor Cover Glass Thickness for Various Cameras

2021-08-28 Panasonic S1R vs Leica SL2: Sensor Cover Glass Thickness vs Performance for Leica M Lenses, L-Mount Lenses

2021-08-23 Panasonic S1R Sensor Bifurcation

2021-08-18 Panasonic S1R and Leica SL2 (L-Mount) —  Potentially the Best 35mm Quality? Updated_v3

2021-08-16 Where is the Camera Industry Headed?

2021-07-16 Oversampling for Image Quality: we need a 100 Megapixel Sensor in 35mm Format

2021-07-15 What Does the Future Hold for a Sony A7R V?

2021-05-10 Fujifilm GFX100S vs Sony A1: thoughts on Enjoyment, Hit Rate, Image Success + Reader Viewpoints

2021-05-02 Essay and Reader Comments: Sony A1 vs Fujifilm GFX100S: Real Achievable Capture Resolution, Effort Level, Enjoyment (UPDATED, v2)

2021-04-09 Reader Comments: Fujifilm GFX100S

2021-04-08 Sony A1 Image Quality: ISO Invariance — Which ISO to Use, When a Push is Just Fine, Noise and Hot Pixels

2021-04-04 Shootout: Sony A1 vs Sony A7R IV from ISO 100 to ISO 102400, Noise, Hot Pixels, Sharpness, Color

2021-03-28 Sony A1 has two welcome Anti-Dust Features

2021-03-28 Sony A1 Pixel Mapping Maps Out Hot Pixels

2021-03-13 Looking for Reader Suggestions: Best Ways to Acquire and Track Human and Animal Eyes

2021-03-09 Could a Sony 128-Megapixel Sensor with Global Shutter and Color and Monochrome Variants Give Rise to a Sony Medium Format Camera?

2021-03-07 Longer “reach”: Micro Four Thirds vs Cropping Full-Frame or APS-C

2021-03-03 The Most Useful and Practical Telephoto for Wildlife Might Be the Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 150-400mm f/4.5 TC1.25X IS PRO

2021-03-02 Fujifilm GFX100/Fujifilm GFX100S: 16-shot high-res mode looks like crap

2021-02-21 Reader Comment: “painful to watch the slow death of Pentax”

2021-02-16 World’s Best 35mm Lens? Voigtlander FE 35mm f/2 APO-Lanthar for Sony Mirrorless and Leica M Coming in April

2021-02-12 Reader Comment: Black and White Photography “samples you have are some of the best I have seen” + How to Process

2021-02-10 Fujifilm GFX100S Pixel Shift Mode: How Good is it, and is it Viable for Non-Studio Photography?

2021-02-08 Reader Question: Convert Nikon Z7 to monochrome vs Nikon D850?

2021-02-02 Reader Comment: “Fell in Love with the Aesthetic of the Fujifilm GFX100”

2021-02-02 Reader Comment: Leica Q2 Monochrom costs about as much as a Fujilm GFX100S, why no Leica M with EVF?

2021-02-02 Just How Good is the Fujifilm GFX100S for Monochrome vs the Leica M10 Monochrom and/or Nikon D850 Monochrome?

2021-02-02 Fujifilm GFX100S or Sony A1 or Sony A7R IV for Landscape, Studio, etc?

2021-02-01 Sony A7R IV is $500 Off + Reader Comments, Sony A1

2021-01-30 Rethinking When to Buy the Fujifilm GFX100S vs the Sony A1

2021-01-30 Reader Question: Best Lenses for the Fujifilm GFX100S + Equivalent Focal Length and F-Stop vs 35mm Format

2021-01-27 Fujifilm GFX100S Chops $4000 Off Fujifilm GFX100, Cuts Size and Weight, Costs Less than Sony A1! Plus Commentary

2021-01-26 Sony A1 Reader Comments (4)

2021-01-26 Sony A1 Initial Impressions

2021-01-17 Leica M10 Monochrom vs Leica M10-R: Snowy Mountainside

2021-01-15 Black Dots in White Spots 'Pimples': is Leica 'Cooking' the Raw Data with Acutance-Enhancing Imaging Pipeline? (CONFIRMED by a reader, also REPLICATED with Leica M10-R)

2021-01-12 Sensor Bifurcation, Stitched Sensors: More Insight From Readers

2021-01-08 Sensor Bifurcation, Stitched Sensors: Affects Leica M10 Monochrom, Leica M10-R, Leica SL2, some Medium Format

2021-01-02 Leica M10 Monochrom: Bifurcated Sensor Defect, Might be Unfixable Hardware Problem (UPDATED with comments), also Affects Leica M10-R, Leica SL2


2020-12-13 Leica M10 Monochrome: Filters and Focus Error / Sharpness

2020-10-18 Swing and Tilt: Subject Distance vs Lens Focusing Offset

2020-10-18 Looks for Mirex Adapter for Nikon F or Canon EF to Sony E-Mount

2020-10-18 Analyzing Swing and Tilt of Sony A7R IV with Two Samples of Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM

2020-10-16 Update on Sony A7R IV Lens Mount / Sensor Parallelism, Lens Skew of Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM, Coming Field Shooting

2020-10-14 Nikon Z7 II Narrows the Gap with Last Year’s Cameras

2020-10-12 Lens Mount / Sensor Parallelism Inaccuracies Afflict All Brands

2020-10-08 Is It Even POSSIBLE to get a properly aligned Sony A7R IV?

2020-10-07 Sony A7R IV in for Repair of Lens Mount / Sensor Parallelism Problem

2020-10-01 Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM Aperture Series: Big Tree at Bend in Alpine Creek (jaw-dropping focus shift and lens skew)

2020-09-09 California Forest Fires in San Francisco Bay Area: Eerie Orange Twilight at 10:10 AM —It’s Raining Ash

2020-09-02 Reader Comment: Transition to Mirrorless (UPDATED)

2020-07-25 Reader Comments: Leica M10 monochrome

2020-07-17 Leica M10-R and Leica M10 Monochrom: 40-Megapixel Sensor, but Nil New Design Thinking —  with essay by Roy P

2020-07-09 Canon EOS R5 Ships Soon + Canon RF 85mm f/2 Macro IS STM, Canon RF 100-500mm F4.5-7.1 L IS USM, Canon RF 600mm f/11 IS STM, Canon RF 800mm f/11 IS STM

2020-06-28 Reader Comment: Hasselblad X1D-50C II vs Fujifilm GFX100 and Lenses for Each System

2020-06-15 Hasselblad XCD 65mm f/2.8 Aperture Series: View Over Alabama Hills Formations, Last Light on High Peaks

2020-05-28 Sensor Cleanliness: how to change a lens so as to minimize dust on the sensor

2020-05-28 Reader Question on Hasselblad X1D II: Dust vs Fujifilm GFX100 and Fujifilm GFX-50S

2020-05-02 Spectral Cutoff of Sensor Cover Glass vs Ultraviolet Filters on the Lens: Shows UV Filters to be Pointless

2020-02-28 Sony A7R IV In For Repair: With Praise and Mild Criticism for Sony (and why does a new New Camera Needs Parts?)

2020-02-19 Why I am Dragging my Feet with the Voigtlander 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar: Possible Issue with Sony A7R IV Lens Mount Flange/Sensor Planarity


2019-12-09 Phase One IQ4 + Schneider Kreuznach LS 80mm f/2.8 Example: Last Change Wash (depth of field is nil on a 53.4 X 40 mm sensor!)

2019-12-04 Sony Invests in AI for Gaming, Imaging, Gastronomy

2019-11-24 Reader Comments: Whither Nikon?

2019-10-28 Sony A7R IV: Horrible Sensor Dust Problems (updated 2019-11-17)

2019-10-23 Adobe Camera Raw Enhance Details Produces Striping Pattern Noise on Nikon D850, Other Cameras

2019-10-04 Jaw-Dropping Sharpness with Zeiss Milvus 85mm f/1.4 Aperture Series on Nikon D850 Monochrome: Pine Creek Mining Buildings (up to 181 megapixels)

2019-09-18 Lens Quality Control as Revealed by Demanding Sony A7R IV 60MP Sensor

2019-09-17 Nikon D850 Monochrome: Initial Example, and Frame Averaging for Ultra Low Noise (updated with comments, Sony A7R IV Potential)

2019-09-14 Reader Comment: Nikon Z7 vs Nikon Z6 for Focusing Tracking and Noise

2019-09-13 Nikon D850 Monochrome

2019-09-12 Reader Comment: “iPhone 11 Pro/Pro Max is a pivot point”

2019-08-30 Landscape Photographers Looking for Superior Results and Lowest Effort and Fewest Problems Go with Fujifilm GFX100, not Sony A7R IV

2019-08-25 Sony A7R IV Looks Flawed for My Purposes: Appear to Lack Focus Stacking Support and Lossless Compressed RAW

2019-08-23 Fujifilm GFX100 Sensor Stabilization (IBIS): Beware Destruction of Image Sharpness on a Tripod

2019-08-20 Fujifilm GFX100 Focus Stacking Handheld with Sensor Stabilization (IBIS)

2019-08-19 How Good is Fujifilm GFX100 Sensor Stabilization? “Earth Shadow Rising Above Barcroft Research Station”, 1/10 Second Handheld

2019-08-18 Image Quality: Fujifilm GFX100 vs Fujifilm GFX 50S/R

2019-08-16 Reader Comment on Fujifilm GFX100: “High Praise Indeed”

2019-08-06 Reader Comment: Sony’s Powerhouse Strategy

2019-08-04 Fujifilm GFX100: Stunning Image Quality, How to use the FOCUS BKT Feature for Focus Stacking, and About its Damaging Bugs

2019-07-27 Fujifilm GFX Image Quality: Crosshatching Pattern Noise with Adobe Camera Raw Enhance Details

2019-07-27 Fujifilm GFX Image Quality: Assessing Image Quality from ISO 100 to ISO 12800 on a Real-World Image

2019-07-25 Zeiss Otus 100mm f/1.4 APO-Sonnar: First Look at how it does adapted to the Fujifilm GFX100

2019-07-23 Reader Comment: Sony Mirrorless Lenses on Nikon Z7 via Techart PRO Autofocus Adapter

2019-07-22 Fujifilm GFX-100: ISO 50 vs 100, Sensor Transit Time, 16-bit vs 14-bit Capture, Unstable Lens Focus

2019-07-02 Reader Comment: Lens Adaptability, Lens Adapters

2019-06-26 Fujifilm GFX-100: Review Coming Soon

2019-05-26 Focus Shift, a General Discussion

2019-04-13 Panasonic S1R: True ISO 50, not a Faux ISO — Kudos to Panasonic (UPDATED: “true ISO” is not a thing for RAW)

2019-04-12 Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH Aperture Series: Mosaic (Panasonic S1R)

2019-04-10 Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: Walkway through Grass at Night (Panasonic S1R)

2019-04-03 Panasonic S1R Enroute for Testing

2019-03-31 Revisiting Fractal-Like Artificats with Fujifilm X-Trans Sensor with Adobe Camera Raw Enhance Details

2019-03-29 Is L-Mount in Your Photography Future? Thoughts on Being Locked-In to a Camera System (Sigma MC-21 Mount Converter)

2019-03-21 15+ Reader Comments on “Request for Feedback: How Best to Partition my Publication Offerings”

2019-03-07 Leica Q2 Announced, a Few Comments

2019-02-26 Reader Comment: Panasonic S1R and its L-Mount Lens Choices Including Sigma DG HSM Art Lenses

2019-02-25 Sigma Announces 11 Lenses for L-Mount (Panasonic S1 and Panasonic S1R) + Reader Comments

2019-02-18 Reader Comment: Nikon Mirrorless or Canon Mirrorless

2019-02-03 Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: Old Mining Engine (Nikon Z7)

2019-02-02 Reader Comments on the Panasonic S1R System


2018-12-07 Nikon Z7 and Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Here — Looks Promising

2018-11-27 Nikon Z7 Should Be a Solid Leica M and Zeiss ZM Lens Platform Without Modification

2018-11-07 Reader Comments: Mirrorless System Choice (Nikon Mirrorless, Canon Mirrorless, Sony Mirrorless, Medium Format)

2018-10-09 Nikon Z7: Thin 1.1mm Sensor Cover Glass Gives Promise of using M-Mount Lenses with Good Performance

2018-10-03 Reader Comment: Panasonic S1R with L-Mount Might be the Holy Grail for Leica M Lenses

2018-09-29 Panasonic Bolsters the Full-Frame Mirrorless Market with All new Sensor in Panasonic S1R and Panasonic S1

2018-09-27 Zeiss ZX1 Fixed-Lens Camera

2018-09-26 The Leica/Panasonic/Sigma Alliance L-Mount Alliance

2018-09-26 Sigma Full-Frame Foveon-Sensor Camera with L-Mount

2018-09-26 Leica S3 Medium Format: an Updated Dinosaur

2018-09-25 Sigma’s Fast New Art Lenses, Plus What Looks to be a 'Killer' 70-200mm f/2.8 Zoom

2018-09-20 Coming Soon: Sony FE 24mm f/1.4 GM

2018-09-05 Canon EOS R Mirrorless System Announced

2018-09-04 Sensor Technology: Might Panasonic/Fujifilm Deliver an Awesome New Organic High Dynamic Range 8K Sensor That Competes with Sony?

2018-08-31 What’s Next for Mirrorless? Canon For Sure, but What About...

2018-08-24 Comments on Nikon Z7 Features

2018-08-13 Sony A7R III: the Noise Behavior that Has Been Troublesome to Me — Updated, PhaseOne CaptureOne PRO (Repost)

2018-08-01 Is It the End of the Development Road for Leica M Cameras? (Updated with Reader Comments)

2018-07-26 Nikon Mirrorless: What is the Value Proposition?

2018-07-25 Nikon to Enter Mirrorless Camera Market (Updated with comments)

2018-07-25 Hasselblad PR: “Real World” Comparison: Nikon D850 with Decrepit Nikon 17-35mm f/2.8 Zoom Compared Without Format Equivalence or Validation of Basics

2018-06-20 Hasselblad to Announce a 100-Megapixel X2D Soon?

2018-05-30 On the Way for Testing: Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M

2018-05-04 Is 100 Megapixels Coming to Fujifilm GFX and Hasselblad X Line?

2018-01-24 Sony A7R III: Pixel Shift vs Single Frame on Finely Detailed Subject


2017-12-28 Sony A7R III: the Noise Behavior that Has Been Troublesome to Me — Updated, PhaseOne CaptureOne PRO (UPDATED)

2017-12-18 Reader Comments: Sony A7R III, Nikon D850, EVF, Focusing, Landscape

2017-12-17 Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8 R WR Examples: Lundy Canyon Just Before the Winter Solstice

2017-12-16 Reader Comments: Sony A7R III

2017-11-26 What Would the Arrival of a 100-Megapixel Fujifilm GFX and/or Hasselblad X1D Mean for the DSLR and Mirrorless Options?

2017-11-26 Arriving: Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8R WR for Fujifilm GFX-50R

2017-11-18 Nikon D850: Is Lack of Availability Due to Limited Sensor Supply? Whose Sensor?

2017-10-28 Sony Alpha A7R III: Pixel Shift Facts

2017-10-28 Nikon D850: the 2nd Sample is Off Also, both Skewed and Bad Flange Focal Distance

2017-10-25 Sony Announces Sony Alpha A7R III

2017-10-20 Fujifilm GFX: My Thoughts vs 35mm Format, Particularly the Nikon D850 and Sony A7R II

2017-10-12 Nikon D850: Mine Also Has a Problematic Flange Focal Distance (way past infinity mark).

2017-10-08 Nikon D850: New Copy Seems Good (except for infinity focus)

2017-10-03 Nikon D850: Misaligned Sensor Example Images

2017-10-01 Nikon D850: the Focusing Distance Issues Stem from a Sensor that is not Parallel to the Lens Mount (Nikon quality control issue)

2017-09-29 Nikon D850: Apparent Build Tolerance Error in Flange Focal Distance vs Optical Viewfinder, Causes Major Focus Error with Manual Focus Lenses and Focus Confirmation

2017-09-16 The PhaseONE IQ3 100 Megapixel Trichromatic Sensor/Camera

2017-09-08 Sony A7R II Repaired via Sony Pro Services

2017-08-29 Hasselblad X1D Firmware Update Adds Electronic Shutter Option, Spot Focus Points

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Time Lapse is a Breakthrough for Nikon DSLRs... First Solid 8K Support?

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Metering and Autofocus

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Image Quality Across the ISO Range Improved, What About ISO 64?

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Evaluating Noise Properly

2017-08-25 Some Interesting Points About the Nikon D850

2017-08-23 Nikon Announces the D850, Commentary + Reader Comments

2017-07-29 Fujifilm GFX-50S + Fujifilm GF 23mm f/4 and Fujifilm GF 110mm f/2 at Dana Lakes

2017-07-15 Reader Comment: Leica SL as Platform for Leica M Lenses

2017-07-09 A Casualty of the 2016/2017 Snowfall: Bighorn Sheep

2017-06-20 Leica M10 Coming This Week

2017-06-04 Sony A9: Two Examples of Pattern/Banding Noise at ISO 100 (Pine Creek Skyline, Mt Tom) + Reader Comments

2017-05-25 Sony A9: Pattern/Banding Noise at ISO 100 (plus reader comments)

2017-05-15 Leica M9/M9P: Corroded Sensor Repairs

2017-05-09 Fujifilm GFX Sensor Quality

2017-05-03 Reader Question: Adapting Medium Format Lenses to the Fujifilm GFX

2017-05-03 Fujifilm GFX Sensor Cover Glass Thickness?

2017-05-01 Reader Comments on Adapting 35mm Lenses to the Fujifilm GFX

2017-04-30 Cambo Introduces Electronic Adapter for Canon EF Lenses on Fujifilm GFX

2017-04-28 Fujifilm GFX: Adapting Medium Format Lenses

2017-04-26 Evaluating 9 Top-End 35mm DSLR Lenses on the Fujifilm GFX

2017-04-25 First Impressions in Adapating Lenses to the GFX (Otus 55/1.4)

2017-04-24 Is the Fujifilm GFX Suitable as a Digital Back?

2017-04-19 Sony’s New α9 Camera Appears to Target the High-End Sport Shooter Market

2017-04-16 Fujifilm GFX + 63mm f/2.8 Aperture Series: Three Pines

2017-04-16 Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 Examples, Eastern Sierra

2017-04-14 Fujifilm GFX + 63mm f/2.8 at Their Best, Aperture Series: Aspen and Firs by Lee Vining Creek

2017-02-25 MTF for Fujifilm GFX GF Lenses

2017-02-12 Is This the Year of Cool New Cameras?

2017-02-09 Reader Comment: ETTR (Expose to the Right)

2017-02-07 Hasselblad X1D: Long Exposures

2017-02-04 Sigma sd Quattro-H: DNG Files Shrink by More than 50% After Adobe DNG Converter

2017-02-02 Sigma sd Quattro-H: Shoots X3F as Usual, or DNG With a Huge Size Penalty

2017-01-27 Is Leica a Credible Player?

2017-01-20 Fujifilm GFX 50s Crop Factor for HC Lenses

2017-01-18 Leica M10: Inertial Design

2017-01-18 Fujifilm GFX 50 Megapixel Medium Format Announced: Hi-Res Display Wonder (EVF, Rear LCD, Top Panel)

2017-01-14 Medium Format Hasselblad X1D and Fujifilm GFX vs Leica S & M and Leica SL

2017-01-12 Hasselblad X1D-50C vs Fujifilm GFX-50S Lens Lineup (UPDATED 13 Jan)

2017-01-11 Hasselblad X1D-50C or Fujifilm GFX?

2017-01-11 Fujifilm GFX: Might a Zeiss Otus Image Circle Fill Most of the Sensor?

2017-01-07 Reader Question: Sensor Pixel Density, Oversampling


2016-12-23 Sigma sd Quattro H Now Available for Pre-Order

2016-12-20 Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II First Look: High-Res Mode

2016-12-15 Sigma sd Quattro H Due in Mid January

2016-12-12 The D810 as a 73-Megapixel Medium Format Camera with a 49mm X 36mm Virtual Sensor: Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E Shift-Lens Stitching (Alpine Creek)

2016-12-10 Reader Question: Sigma sd Quattro H vs Sony A7R II

2016-12-06 Sigma sd Quattro H Due Soon

2016-12-01 Camera Repair in Taiwan

2016-11-01 Approaching Potential Sensor Resolution: Focus Stacking at 50 Megapixels (Lundy Beaver Pond, Canon 5Ds R)

2016-10-29 Approaching Potential Sensor Resolution: Focus Stacking at 50 Megapixels (Spotted Boulder, Canon 5Ds R)

2016-10-18 The Sinar Leica S Mirrorless Camera

2016-10-09 Sigma dp0 and dp1 Quattro: Razor Sharp Detail

2016-09-20 Fujifilm GFX 50S: Reader Comments/Questions

2016-09-19 Thoughts on the Fujifilm GFX 50S

2016-09-19 Sony A99 II: Mirrorless that Looks Like a DSLR

2016-09-19 Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II: Sport Shooter’s Dream?

2016-09-19 Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II: Major Improvements and New Features

2016-09-19 Fujifilm GFX 50S Disrupts the Medium Format (and 35mm) Marketplace

2016-09-12 Hasselblad X1D-50C: Coming Soon (Update: Delayed)

2016-08-04 Sigma on “File Bloat”

2016-08-02 Sigma sd Quattro Here: X3I Files Introduce Ultra High Dynamic Range (SFD) mode.

2016-07-21 Leica SL: Hot Pixels + Pattern Noise at ISO 100

2016-07-15 Depth of field and Sharpness: Conventional Thinking is Unrealistic Going Forward, Focus Stacking is One Solution

2016-07-05 Hasselblad X1D-50C: Sensor Size and Pixel Quality in regards to Aspect Ratio

2016-07-01 Hasselblad X1D-50C: Sensor Size and Pixel Quality

2016-07-01 Hasselblad X1D-50C: Reader Comments

2016-06-22 Hasselblad X1D-50C: 50-Megapixel Mirrorless Medium Format

2016-06-20 Leica SL vs M240: Lens Corrections and Color Rendering with M Lenses

2016-06-19 Evaluating White Balance and Tint for Leica SL and Leica M240 with DataColor SpyderCHECKR with 3 Lenses

2016-06-17 Leica SL a Replacement for M240 when Shooting M lenses?

2016-05-31 The Future of Image Quality is Fixed-Lens Cameras

2016-05-25 Pentax 50mm f/2.8 Macro Aperture Series: Church Mosaic, Dusk (Pentax K1 SuperRes)

2016-05-24 Pentax DA HD Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro Aperture Series: 'Map' (Pentax K1 SuperRes)

2016-05-10 Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

2016-05-05 Shipping: Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-56 G OSS

2016-05-04 REVIEWED: Sony RX10 III

2016-05-01 EVF Mirrorless vs DLSR

2016-04-24 Rumors of High Megapixels True or Not, Oversampling for Image Quality Makes Sense: 109 Megapixel Tulips via Sony RX100

2016-04-23 Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon: Imperturbable Brilliance, 3D Feel, a Lens Justifying the Camera

2016-04-05 Panasonic Lumix DMC-GX85 Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds Powerhouse

2016-04-04 Fujifilm X-Pro2 Severe Image Quality Bug: Grid Artifacts

2016-03-31 Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-56 G OSS

2016-02-29 Sigma SD Quattro Mirrorless Cameras

2016-02-25 Reader Comment on Pentax K3 II Super Resolution Mode: “Museum Artifact Work”

2016-02-23 Reader Comment: Pentax K1 “Mission”

2016-02-21 Reader Comment: Pentax K1 Reactions

2016-02-21 Pentax K1: Super Resolution Mode Appears to be Best DSLR Quality Yet

2016-02-21 Pentax K1: Impressive Innovation Unmatched by CaNikon

2016-02-19 Pentax K1 Full Frame Lens Selection

2016-02-18 Pentax K1 Super Resolution Pixel Shift Mode

2016-02-17 Pentax K1: 36 Megapixels with Image Stabilization and Super Resolution Mode

2016-02-09 Reader Comment: Big and Heavy Sony G Master Lenses

2016-02-07 Sony A6300: Oversampling for 4K Video Quality

2016-02-04 Sony Diffraction-Free Computed (not measured) Fantasy MTF Charts

2016-02-03 Sony A6300, and the Fujifilm X-Pro2

2016-02-01 Canon EOS-1D X Mark II

2016-01-23 Reflecting on the Ricoh GR

2016-01-03 100 Megapixels: Phase One Ships Its XF 100MP Camera System


2015-12-24 'Discounted', not 'Discontinued' Reflects a New Plausibility

2015-12-23 Sony RX1R II: Is it Worth Upgrading from RX1/RX1R?

2015-11-09 Sony A7S II: Real-World ISO 100 to ISO 410000 with and without Chroma Noise Reduction (Campfire)

2015-10-31 Warm and Sunny Follows Cold Snow: Zeiss ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon on Canon 5DS R in Lundy Canyon

2015-10-27 Spectral Transmission of Digital Sensors

2015-10-27 Kolarivision-Modified Sony A7R II vs Leica M240: What are the Real Gains?

2015-10-25 Reviewed: Kolarivision-Modified Sony A7R II with Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

2015-10-24 Reviewed: Kolarivision-Modified Sony A7R II with Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

2015-10-24 Reviewed: Kolarivision-Modified Sony A7R II with Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

2015-10-22 The Irrational Aim of f/1.4 Lenses

2015-10-20 Leica SL Typ 601 Full-Frame Mirrorless Camera System: the Logical Joining of DSLR and Mirrorless

2015-10-04 Sony A7R II: Dust Reduction / Anti-Dust Feature is Worthless

2015-09-24 Reader Question/Question: WOW on Sigma DP Merrill, Processing Sigma DP Merrill Files

2015-09-06 Leica M Monochrom: $2000 off, vs the better and Cheaper Alternatives

2015-09-03 Kolarivision Sony A7R II with Leica M Lenses: Coming Soon

2015-08-26 Canon EOS M3: Coming to USA

2015-08-23 Sony In-Body-Image-Stabilization (IBIS) aka SteadyShot: Is There a Downside?

2015-08-21 Sony A7R II: Where is Pixel Shift?

2015-08-10 Reader Inquiry: Sony A7R II vs Sony A7s High ISO Noise

2015-08-08 Sony A7R II: Assessing IBIS at 280mm: Is Handheld Shooting at 42 Megapixels at 1/125 Second Viable?

2015-08-08 Sony A7R II with Leica M Lenses

2015-08-05 Olympus M.ZUIKO 7-14mm f/2.8 PRO Aperture Series @14mm: Dana Lake, Water View + Sensor Shift Artifacting

2015-08-04 Readers Write on the Sony A7R II: is there a quality issue with the EVF?

2015-08-02 Sony A7R II: Coming Soon

2015-07-29 See in the Dark: ISO 4,000,000 with the Canon ME20F-SH

2015-07-29 Medium Format for $3999: Pentax 645D

2015-07-21 Will the Leica Q Kill the Leica M?

2015-07-16 Left/Right Zone of Focus Skew: Not Always the Lens, the Sensor and Lens Mount Might not be Plane-Parallel

2015-07-08 Reader Question: Diffraction

2015-07-07 Sony A7R II: Is it the Death Knell for Leica M?

2015-07-06 Sony A7R II: Where is Pixel Shift?

2015-06-21 Canon 5DS R: new King of DSLR Resolution

2015-06-16 Sony Working on Uncompressed File Format?

2015-06-13 Reader Inquiry: Banding, Posterization, Color Shifts (and the right workflow)

2015-06-12 Evaluated: “Sony, Fix These Things and Win” aka How Does the Sony A7R II Stack Up?

2015-06-10 Announced: Sony RX10 Mark II, Sony RX100 Mark IV

2015-06-10 Announced: Sony A7R II with 42-Megapixel sensor, In-Body-Image-Stabilization, 4K Video

2015-06-10 Announced: Leica Q

2015-06-08 Apple iPhone is a Phone with Camera, Panasonic DMC-DM1P is a Camera with Phone

2015-06-07 Leica M Monochrom Typ 246: At Least Two Sensor Column Defects

2015-06-06 Shootout: Leica M Monochrom Typ 246 vs Leica M Typ 240

2015-05-13 Perspective, Telephoto Compression

2015-05-07 Leica 24-Megapixel Leica M Monochrom Typ 246 Starts Shipping

2015-04-23 Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH Aperture Series @ 30mm: 'Mossy Boulders in Pescadero Creek'

2015-04-22 Pentax K3 II: Out-Innovating Nikon and Canon

2015-04-21 Leica S with the Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH

2015-03-27 Nikon and Canon: Catatonic?

2015-03-27 Emerging Features that Are Essential: Make the Camera Work for YOU

2015-03-25 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Hi-Res Sensor Shift Mode vs Standard-res, NOISE Compared

2015-03-25 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Hi-Res Sensor Shift Mode EXAMPLES

2015-03-20 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Just How Good is the Hi-Res Sensor Shift Mode?

2015-03-20 Hi-Res Sensor Shift: Can 16 megapixels become 40 megapixels?

2015-03-08 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Sensor Shift Mode (updated)

2015-02-28 Oversampling for Image Quality: 109 Megapixel Sony RX100 tulips

2015-02-22 It’s 2015: Where Does Leica M Stand?

2015-02-10 Not Sure Which? (Canon or Nikon) Three Years and the Choice Still Looks Clear Enough

2015-02-09 Sigma Announces dp0 Quattro with 21mm (equiv) Field of View

2015-02-09 Nikon D810a ('a' for Astrophotography)

2015-02-06 Canon’s EOS 5DS R: no Optical Low Pass Filter / Anti-Aliasing Filter

2015-02-05 Canon’s 50 Megapixel Leap: EOS 5DS and EOS 5DS R

2015-01-23 Sony Kolarivision A7R.MOD: Summary of Performance (Guide to Mirrorless)

2015-01-20 Sony Kolarivision A7R.MOD: Performance with Zeiss ZM 21mm f/4.5 C-Biogon (a worst case)

2015-01-20 CamsFormer Next Gen DSLR Tether,High Speed Trigger

2015-01-17 Modified Sony A7R Sensor Glass: Impact on Rangefinder Lens Performance

2015-01-16 Sony A7R: Sensor Glass Thickness, Ray Angle and Image Degradation: Kolarivision Modification

2015-01-12 Reader Questions: Fujifilm X system, Sony A7x Discounting and 4K Video, Arca Swiss Cube Geared Head


2014-12-24 Think Otus for High-Res Sensors

2014-12-11 Leica M CCD Sensor White Spots

2014-12-10 Reader Comments: Sigma DP Merrill vs Alternatives

2014-11-25 Sony Image Stabilization and the Sony FE 16-35mm f/4 ZA OSS Vario-Tessar

2014-09-12 Nikon D750: Incremental Move Forward, but Plows no New Ground

2014-09-11 Sigma announces dp1 Quattro with 28mm (equiv) Wide Angle Lens

2014-09-02 Zeiss Loxia: Manual Focus All Metal Build Lenses for Mirrorless Full Frame

2014-08-27 Nikon D810: Sensor Cover Glass Quality?

2014-07-27 The Future of Peak Image Quality Means Fixed-Lens Cameras

2014-07-24 A conversation with Ming Thein on the Pentax 645Z and Nikon D810 and More

2014-07-22 Reader Comments: D810 Review, Lenses, etc

2014-07-21 Nikon D810: How Much Underexposure Can It Take?

2014-07-20 Nikon D810 Image Quality

2014-07-16 Nikon D810: can it compete with Pentax 645Z?

2014-06-25 Nikon D810 Leaked Specs: Improved Sensor, EFC Shutter

2014-06-25 Nikon Announces D810

2014-06-07 Sony A6000: Outsize Value with Instant Savings — and is the A6000 an Enabling Platform for Zeiss ZM Lenses?

2014-05-27 Sony A6000: Sensor Quality at ISO 100

2014-05-22 24 Megapixels: Sensor Quality APS-C vs Full Frame

2014-05-21 Sigma dp Quattro Sensor Spectral Sensitivity for True-Color Images with Full Spatial Resolution

2014-05-20 EVF and Sensor Resolution: Higher is So Much Better for Critical Focus

2014-05-15 Pentax 645z: Hitting the Bullseye on Which Target?

2014-05-13 Thoughts on Panasonic GH4 and GH4 Video Quality vs Sony A7s (Sensor Size)

2014-05-13 Sony’s Full-Frame Warpath

2014-05-05 Reader Comment: Travel Cameras (Sigma DP Merrill, etc)

2014-04-30 Sony A6000 Comments

2014-04-24 Leica T System: Quick Comments

2014-04-24 Leica T System vs Sony A7/A7R for those M Lenses

2014-04-21 Reader Comment: Sony RX1R

2014-04-19 Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH Aperture Series: Bikes at Night (Sony A7R + Sony A7R)

2014-04-15 Future Sensors: Will they be Friendly to Rangefinder Lenses? (Ray Angle)

2014-04-14 Sony A7R: Is Shutter Vibration an Issue at 50mm?

2014-04-14 Reader Comment: Sony A7s

2014-04-14 Pentax 645Z 51-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR, 13 Pentax Lenses Now Avail in USA

2014-04-12 Hits and Misses: Ultra Low Light Photography—Sony A7s vs Nikon Df (and of sleeping gorillas)

2014-04-09 Color Shading (Vignetting by Color) on Digital Sensors

2014-04-05 Sony A7s with 4K Video?

2014-03-25 Sony CMOS 44 X 33mm Medium Format Sensor: Coming to a new Sony Camera?

2014-03-20 Leica 16/18/21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar M

2014-03-18 Exciting and Not Exciting Stuff

2014-03-18 Astigmatism and Lateral Color: Why Performance is Lens + Sensor (aka why do my expensive lenses suck on mirrorless)

2014-03-10 Shootout: Leica 28/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH vs Leica 28/2 Summicron-M ASPH

2014-03-05 Chicken Vision: an Idea from Nature for a Digital Sensor Design?

2014-02-23 Ricoh GR Reader Comment: “sharpest images I’ve ever attained”

2014-02-15 Readers Comment on the Sony A7 / A7R

2014-02-10 Sigma dp2 Quattro as Monochrome Camera?

2014-02-10 Sigma dp2 Quattro

2014-01-30 Micro Four Thirds and APS-C? Whither the Future? Wither the Future?

2014-01-29 Sony CMOS 44 X 33mm Medium Format Sensor: Will It Go Into a Sony Camera?

2014-01-21 Sony A7R Shutter Vibration: Mitigation Strategies

2014-01-06 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)


2013-12-14 Sigma SD1 Merrill, Sigma 18-35mm f/1.8 DC HSM Zoom, Infrared

2013-12-12 Sony A7R: Leica M Lenses

2013-12-10 Sony A7R / A7: What’s Coming

2013-12-04 Sigma SD1 Merrill with Foveon Sensor: Easy Conversion to Infrared

2013-12-01 Sony A7R: Reader Inquiries

2013-12-01 Sony A7R: Adapting Zeiss and Leica Lenses via Lens Adapter

2013-11-30 Debayering a Color Sensor

2013-11-28 A 36-megapixel Pure Monochrome Camera (Modified Nikon D800)

2013-11-22 Pixel for Pixel, *Nothing* Beats a Sigma DP Merrill

2013-11-20 How to Correct Off-Center Color Shifts With Photoshop Layers (Sony A7R and Leica M?)

2013-11-05 Thoughts on Nikon Df

2013-11-04 Nikon Df 16-Megapixel Full-Frame Retro-Style DSLR

2013-10-25 Leica M240: Shutter Vibration Appears to Damage Image Sharpness

2013-10-23 Sony RX10 Full-Sensor Readout = Higher Quality?

2013-10-22 Sony NEX A7 and A7r: Leica M Lenses to Work Well?

2013-10-16 Sony A7, A7R: Breakthrough in Image Quality in a Compact Package with Killer EVF and LCD Too

2013-10-13 Sony Full-Frame NEX A7r: Rangefinder Lenses, Telecentric Design

2013-10-11 Zeiss Otus 55/1.4 APO-Distagon with Adapter on Sony A or NEX or Similar?

2013-10-10 Sony NEX A7 and A7r: 24 and 36 Megapixels on Full Frame?

2013-10-09 Nikon D610 Makes Solid But Incremental Gains in Performance

2013-10-08 24-megapixel Ricoh Pentax K3, and Pentax DA HD Limited Lenses

2013-09-24 iPhone 5s vs Nokia Lumia 1020 Camera Phones (Oversampling and Downsampling)

2013-09-24 The Perfect Camera for the 80% Case

2013-09-18 A Full-Frame Sony NEX Soon? And Maybe a Surprise?

2013-09-15 Thoughts on a Full-Frame Sony NEX

2013-09-14 SHOOTOUT: Leica X Vario vs Ricoh GR (Brick Building)

2013-09-13 SHOOTOUT: Leica X Vario vs Sigma DP3 Merrill (Green Machine, Frontal View)

2013-09-11 Sigma DP3 Merrill in the Field (Bristlecone Graveyard)

2013-09-10 SHOOTOUT: Leica X Vario vs Sigma DP3 Merrill (Moots Ride to Green Machine)

2013-09-04 NEC PA302W LED-Backlit 30-Inch Wide Gamut Display

2013-08-13 How Will Leica X Vario Lens Compare to the Ricoh GR, Sony RX1, Sigma DP Merrill?

2013-08-05 Which Camera for the Backcountry? Sony RX1, X100, Ricoh GR, Sigma DP Merrill, Leica X Vario?

2013-08-04 Reader Inquiry: Small Cameras, Product Cycles, What’s Coming

2013-08-02 Sigma DP2 Merrill Tulips Image at 6 Feet Wide by 4 Feet High = Gorgeous

2013-08-01 Rx for Profit = Sony RX* ?

2013-07-31 Ricoh GR Bokeh, and Its Unusual Lens

2013-07-31 Is the Full Frame DSLR the New Medium Format? What do DSLRs Lack?

2013-07-26 Making Sharp Images new page: Flange to Sensor Alignment, Fantasy Land MTF

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Summary

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Size and Weight Realities

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Lens Size

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Aspect Ratio

2013-07-24 Can the Sigma DP2 Merrill Print Well at 6 Feet Wide by 4 Feet High?

2013-07-23 Micro Four Thirds: Withering on the Vine

2013-07-21 Sigma Foveon X3 True-Color Sensor vs Bayer Matrix RGGB Sensor

2013-07-20 Sigma Photo Pro Software for Sigma DP Merrill Cameras: Caution before Considering DP Merrill

2013-07-18 The Future of Image Quality is Fixed-Lens Cameras

2013-07-04 Ricoh GR: Highly Recommended

2013-07-02 Canon EOS 70D

2013-06-11 Leica X Vario: Fixed f/3.5 - f/6.4 Lens on APS-C, no EVF

2013-06-08 Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH: Is Stopping Down Needed?

2013-06-04 Graphene for a Digital Sensor?

2013-06-03 Camera Repair in Taiwan

2013-05-24 Leica Mini M

2013-05-21 Sony NEX-7: Unstable Controls

2013-05-12 Oversampling: What Would 56 Megapixels Look Like from a Sony NEX-7 Sensor?

2013-05-10 Iridient Developer Updated to Version 2.1 with Support for Fuji XTrans Sensor

2013-05-08 Nikon D800E vs Canon 5D Mark III: the Nikon D800E Optical Low Pass Blur+Unblur Filter Pack

2013-05-06 Nikon D800 Infrared Camera from, 715nm Cutoff

2013-05-03 24 Megapixel APS-C Shootout: Sony NEX-7 vs Nikon D7100 (with Zeiss 50/2 Makro-Planar)

2013-05-02 Nikon D800E vs Canon 5D Mark III: Sharpness

2013-04-30 Per Pixel: How the Nikon D800E Compares to the Canon 5D Mark III

2013-04-30 Comparing Noise Between Cameras

2013-04-27 Reader Comment: 40MP Pentax 645D vs 36MP Nikon D800

2013-04-27 Optical and Electronic Viewfinders: EVF + Optical + LCD = Synergy

2013-04-27 Is There Room In Today’s Market for an No-Nonsense Workhorse Camera?

2013-04-27 Form Factor and Camera Appeal

2013-04-26 Dream Camera: Big Sensor Fixed Lens

2013-04-26 APS-C Emerges as “the new full frame quality” + the Sagging Momentum of Micro Four Thirds (m4/3)

2013-04-24 Reader Comment: Autofocus Accuracy

2013-04-23 Fujifilm X100S: Digital Artifacts

2013-04-23 Fujifilm X100S

2013-04-22 Reader Asks: Buy the Leica M Typ 240?

2013-04-19 Leica M Typ 240 Moiré

2013-04-15 Leica M Typ 240 / M240 and CMOSIS

2013-04-13 Reader Comments: Leica M240

2013-04-12 Commentary + Reader Comments on Leica M

2013-04-10 Reader Comment: Leica M Typ 240 / M240 Features and Cost

2013-04-08 Leica M Typ 240 / M240 Can Have a Dead Pixel Column Too (same as With The M9)

2013-04-08 Compared: Nikon Coolpix A vs Sigma DP1 Merrill (Dolls, Close Range)

2013-04-07 Compared: Nikon Coolpix A vs Sigma DP1 Merrill (Garden Tables)

2013-04-06 Reader Asks: What to do About Lenses if one has Both Nikon and Canon Systems?

2013-04-03 Nikon Coolpix A Sensor

2013-04-02 Nikon Coolpix A Initial Comments

2013-03-27 Reader Comment: Sigma DP3 Merrill from

2013-03-23 Reader Comment: Sigma DP3 Merrill

2013-03-22 How Does the Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar Perform on a 56-Megapixel DSLR?

2013-03-21 Nikon D7100 Initial Impressions

2013-03-11 Reader Asks: Leica M Typ 240 / M240 + 50/2 APO or Sigma DP2 Merrill?

2013-03-11 Pentax 645D Rebate

2013-03-09 What Happens if the Sensor is not Exactly Plane Parallel to the Lens Mount? (UPDATE)

2013-03-08 Sigma DP3 Merrill Examples

2013-03-07 Sigma DP3 Merrill Initial Experience

2013-03-07 Oversampling for Image Quality (109 Megapixel Sony RX100 tulips)

2013-03-05 Is there a New Trend in Compact Cameras? (fixed lens, large sensor, Nikon Coolpix A)

2013-03-01 What Happens if the Sensor is not Exactly Plane Parallel to the Lens Mount?

2013-02-28 Small Sensor Cameras Make The Grade

2013-02-23 Are Today’s Lenses Good Enough for a 72 Megapixel DSLR?

2013-02-22 Compact High Quality Camera Trends

2013-02-21 Nikon D7100 — No Anti-Aliasing Filter

2013-02-17 With the Upgrade in Lens Performances, What About Canon 6D vs Leica M Typ 240 / M240 ?

2013-02-11 Leica M Typ 240 / M240 Image Quality

2013-02-08 When Will We See Canon Megapixels to Match Nikon?

2013-01-16 Fuji X Raw (ARW) Artifacting: ACR vs Capture One Pro 7.0.2

2013-01-14 Phase One Capture One Pro with Fujifilm X Raw (ARW) Files? How well does it work?

2013-01-14 Metabones and Caldwell Photographic introduce Speed Booster

2013-01-14 Metabones Speed Booster — Comments from the Designer


2012-12-22 SHOOTOUT: Sony RX1 vs Sigma DP2 Merrill vs Fujifilm X-E1

2012-12-12 Sony RX1 24-Megapixel Ultra-Compact Full-Frame Camera

2012-12-09 Fujifilm X-E1 (and X-Pro1) Artifacting Issue — Reader Comments

2012-12-06 Fujifilm X-E1 Has the Same Fractal-Like Artifacts as the X-Pro1

2012-11-29 ETTR (Expose to the Right) — An Essential Skill to Master for Image Quality

2012-11-27 A CALL TO ACTION: Build Intelligent ETTR Into Digital Cameras

2012-11-26 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Quality Control Steps Up (“A1 MTF”)

2012-11-23 Sigma DP2 Merrill Examples

2012-11-14 Image Quality From Olympus OMD E-M5 (or Sigma DP Merrill, or any small sensor)

2012-11-13 Getting the Best Results From a Digital Sensor — JPEG vs RAW and Exposure and Noise

2012-11-12 Getting the Best Results From a Digital Sensor

2012-10-27 Thoughts on the Direction of Digital

2012-10-23 Nikon D600 Sensor Dust

2012-10-21 Why Don’t Digital Cameras Offer a Perfect ETTR exposure with a true raw histogram too?

2012-10-21 Olympus SHG 14-35mm f/2 ED — Does It “Cover” more than a Four Thirds/MFT Sensor? (Updated, Camera Obscura)

2012-10-19 Olympus SHG Four Thirds Lenses — Do They “Cover” more than a Four Thirds/MFT Sensor?

2012-10-18 Thoughts on Olympus, and Sony’s Investment in Olympus

2012-10-15 An Open Letter to Sigma on the DP1 Merrill

2012-10-09 Sigma DP1 Merrill — Really Interesting Sensor, Crashing Sigma Software

2012-10-08 Analysis of Sony RX1 Press Release

2012-10-06 Sony RX1 24-Megapixel Ultra-Compact Full-Frame Camera

2012-10-05 Nikon D600 Initial Impressions

2012-09-23 Sigma DP1 Merrill Image Quality

2012-09-22 Fujifilm X-Pro1 — Same Artifacts from the Funky Sensor Design

2012-09-19 More details on the new 24-Megapixel Leica M240 from Photokina

2012-09-17 24-Megapixel CMOS Leica M (Typ 240)

2012-09-15 Compared: 18-megapixel Leica M Monochrom vs 36-megapixel Nikon D800E — UPSAMPLED

2012-09-14 Sony vs Nikon and Canon — Lunch is Served, but WHO WILL EAT IT?

2012-09-14 Shitty Products

2012-09-10 It’s a Free-For-All in the Mirrorless Arena

2012-09-02 The Future of Non-DSLR and DSLR Cameras

2012-08-28 Sony RX100 RAW File Conversion with Adobe Camera RAW

2012-08-19 Sensor Photosite Density on the Sony Cybershot DSC-RX100

2012-08-19 Reviewed: 20-Megapixel Sony Cybershot DSC-RX100

2012-07-23 Canon EOS M APS-C Point & Shoot

2012-07-23 Canon EOS 1D X Arrives Today

2012-07-22 Olympus OM-D E-M5 — Why Not Offer a Monochrome version?

2012-07-20 Canon 1D X Arrives Monday July 23

2012-07-18 Panasonic Lumix G5 Micro 4/3 Camera

2012-07-18 Olympus Super High Grade (SHG) Lenses for 4/3 and Micro 4/3 MFT

2012-07-17 Micro 4/3 Cameras Make the Grade

2012-07-13 Why Not 68 Megapixels in a Nikon or Canon DSLR?

2012-07-10 Olympus OM-D E-M5 Coverage

2012-06-18 Reader Comment: Fujifilm X-Pro1

2012-06-09 Saving Space by Cropping the D800 / D800E Sensor

2012-06-04 Reader Comments: D3x vs D800

2012-06-02 Reader Comments: Nikon D800 Autofocus, Pentaprism Blur

2012-05-24 Nikon’s 24MP D3200 — Quick Review With Aperture Series, Simulation of 58 Megapixel DSLR

2012-05-22 Exploiting the Sensor Resolution: Depth of Field on the Nikon D800E

2012-05-21 Thoughts on Leica M Monochrom

2012-05-16 Reader Asks: Depth of Field

2012-05-14 18-Megapixel Leica M Monochrom vs Nikon D800 Black & White

2012-05-10 Leica M Monochrom — 18-Megapixel Monochrome Sensor

2012-05-09 D4x: Wild Speculation That Is not So Unreasonable

2012-04-26 Optimal Aperture for Nikon D800

2012-04-24 New NEC SpectraSensor Colorimeter for NEC Displays

2012-04-22 Fujifilm X-Pro1 Review

2012-04-21 Nikon’s 24MP D3200 — Will the DX Sensor Have a Taste of D800 Quality?

2012-04-19 Reflections on Canon 5D Mark III vs 5D Mark II vs Nikon D800

2012-04-19 Nikon D800E

2012-04-14 Fuji X-Pro1+ 35/1.4 Examples

2012-04-07 Readers Comment on my Nikon D800 vs Leica S2 Shootout

2012-04-04 36 Megapixel Shootout: Nikon D800 vs Leica S2

2012-04-03 Ricoh GXR with A12 Mount for Leica M Lenses, Examples with Leica 21/3.4 SEM, 28/2 Summicron

2012-04-03 En route— Fujifilm X-Pro1 with Fujifilm XF 18mm f/2.0 R and Fujifilm XF 35/1.4 R Lenses

2012-03-25 Canon 5D Mark III First Impressions + Reader Comments

2012-03-13 Fuji X-Pro1 Sensor — Prospects for Leica M, Zeiss ZM Wide-angle Lenses

2012-03-10 Which 28mm Leica M Lens is Best? 28/2.8 Elmarit or 28/2 Summicron?

2012-03-08 Thoughts on Canon EOS 5D Mark III, 22.3 Megapixels

2012-03-07 Diffraction, Sharpness and Nikon D800E

2012-02-26 Reader Asks: Which is Better, Zeiss 21/2.8 Distagon or Leica 21/3.4 SEM ASPH?

2012-02-25 Reader Asks: Zeiss 50mm f/2 Makro-Planar on Nikon D800?

2012-02-12 Comparing 36 Megapixels: Nikon D800 vs Leica S2?

2012-02-11 80 Megapixels— Similar Lens Demands to Realize Potential of the Sensor

2012-02-10 My Thoughts on D800/D800E Features

2012-02-09 What Does Depth of Field Mean on a 36 Megapixel Camera?

2012-02-08 Canon 1D X vs Nikon D4 vs Nikon D800

2012-02-07 Nikon D800 / D800E — Lens Requirements for 36 Megapixels

2012-02-07 36MP Nikon D800 / D800E — Technique and Tolerances

2012-02-05 Fuji X-Pro1 — Coming Soon

2012-02-02 Leica M9P Sensor Defect Example

2012-01-23 Q&A Interview with Leica USA

2012-01-19 Handheld Ultraviolet Photography by Camera Conversion

2012-01-12 Fuji X-Pro1 — Leica M and Zeiss ZM Lenses Will be Possible

2012-01-12 Fuji X-Pro1 — Fujinon XF Lenses on X Mount

2012-01-12 Fuji X-Pro1 Sensor Design — No Anti-Aliasing Filter for Sharp Images


2011-12-29 Sony NEX-7 — Reader Comments on Images and Commentary

2011-12-28 Sony NEX-7 — RAW Only 8 Bits?

2011-12-26 Reader Thoughts on Sony NEX

2011-12-23 RAW Developer 1.9.4 Supports EXR Sensor Modes for Fuji X10

2011-12-21 Sony 24-megapixel NEX-7 Arriving Soon For Testing

2011-12-19 Nikon 36 Megapixel D800 Without an Anti-Aliasing Filter?

2011-12-01 Reader Asks: Is There Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Lateral Chromatic Aberration?

2011-11-21 Supposing a 36 Megapixel Nikon DSLR Arrives... What About Lenses and Technique?

2011-10-29 Leica Interview: “'we don’t add features just for the sake of adding features”

2011-09-09 Canon 8-15mm f/4L Fisheye

2011-09-02 Fuji X100 — Great Sensor, and Thoughts on the Panasonic GF3 and Olympus E-P3

2011-07-16 Sigma DP2x Resolution

2011-06-26 Sigma DP2x “14 megapixel” Point and Shoot with Foveon X3 True-Color Sensor

2011-06-24 Leica M Lenses on Sony NEX-5 with Novoflex Lens Adapter

2011-06-10 Open Letter to Leica — 10 Ways To Improve the M9 Rangefinder

2011-05-23 Sigma Announces 15MP X 3 SD1 DSLR for US $9700

2011-05-22 Fuji Finepix X100 Compared to Nikon D3s + 35mm f/1.4G


2010-12-19 Pentax 55mm f/2.8 for Pentax 645D != 40MP images

2010-12-08 Pentax 645D 40 megapixel medium format camera coming soon

2010-09-20 Items of note at Photokina

2010-07-21 Reader comments on Leica S2 review

2010-07-08 Hasselblad user examines Leica S2 pre-review coverage

2010-07-07 On the way for review — 37.5 megapixel Leica S2

2010-05-29 Leica M9 highlight posterization and Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH examples

2010-01-22 Canon 1D Mark IV image quality

2010-01-21 Nikon D700 “HR” — high resolution mod

2010-01-19 Canon 1D Mark IV — first impressions


2009-10-19 Canon announces EOS 1D Mark IV

2009-10-14 Nikon D3s — an improved Nikon D3

2009-10-08 Where is infinity focus?

2009-08-22 Sigma DP-2 with Foveon X3 sensor review

2009-08-18 Nikon D3x and Zeiss ZF 21/2.8 Distagon

2009-08-02 Ultra wide angle lenses and sensor/lens-mount alignment

2009-03-15 Mac Pro memory might require thermal sensors

2009-02-13 Cleaning your digital camera sensor


2008-11-11 Zeiss ZE 85mm f/1.4 Planar for Canon EOS focus problem

2008-10-18 Monochrome sensors — guest author Pete Myers

2008-09-24 Canon EOS 5D Mark II comments

2008-07-30 Leaf’s 56 megapixel rotating sensor digital back

2008-07-23 Trendsetter? Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX3

2008-07-14 PhaseOne P65+ “full frame” 60MP back

2008-07-03 Leica 90/2 APO ASPH on Canon 1DsM3

2008-07-01 Is 12 megapixels enough?

2008-06-30 Nikon D700

2008-06-26 Depth of field, diffraction, and megapixels

2008-06-14 Self-cleaning sensors — not so clean

2008-04-25 Canon EOS 1DsM3 — detail galore

2008-04-07 Canon G9 infrared

2008-04-02 Infrared camera conversions

2008-03-31 Multispectral photography

2008-01-30 The future is megapixels


2007-12-17 The zipper effect

2007-11-16 DSLR sensor size tyranny

2007-11-10 Ignore unsubstantiated comments

2007-10-24 In the market for a point and shit camera?

2007-08-19 21-megapixel Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III

2007-08-16 More thoughts on 22-megapixel Mamiya ZD

2007-08-10 Nikon’s true-color sensor patent

2007-07-27 Monochrome vs color filter array (Bayer) sensor

2007-07-26 PhaseOne monochrome medium format digital back

2007-07-16 Why no high-res, high-quality monochrome?

2007-06-21 Sigma DP1—first of a new genre of digital cameras?

2007-05-02 The costs of a DSLR

2007-05-02 Canon EOS 1D Mark III

2007-03-03 Self-cleaning sensors

2007-03-03 Evolution of digital camera features


2006-11-08 Leica M8 infrared problems

2006-09-29 Ice, Rock and Life

2006-08-09 The Fujifilm S3 Pro UVIR camera

2006-06-09 Focus precision with the Canon EOS 5D and 85mm/f1.2L

2006-01-29 Nikon D2X lens mount and/or sensor misalignment

2006-01-07 Comments on the newly-announced Hasselblad H2D

2006-01-06 Whither the digital monochrome camera?

diglloyd Inc. | FTC Disclosure | PRIVACY POLICY | Trademarks | Terms of Use
Contact | About Lloyd Chambers | Consulting | Photo Tours
RSS Feeds | Twitter
Copyright © 2022 diglloyd Inc, all rights reserved.