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Blur from Camera or Support

Sharpness loss by camera or support or technique..

How To Get Peak Sharpness With Perfect Focus

Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..

Camera and Lens Tolerances

Sharpness issues related to camera and lens tolerances and build quality..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Nikon D850

The best becomes better..

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II

Nikon’s bread and butter telephoto zoom.

Sony A900

The 24.6 megapixel Sony A900 digital SLR is compared with Canon’ top-of-the-line 21.1MP EOS 1Ds Mark III. A field report including two comparisons with the Canon 1Ds Mark IIII, example images in color and black and white, and the Zeiss ZA 135mm f/1.8 Sonnar. Anti-Shake (SteadyShot) is assessed, as is noise behavior..

Canon 14mm f/2.8L II

In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..

Sigma Super Tele Varifocal 120-300mm f/2.8 DG OS HSM S

Sigma’s fast an flexible moderate super telephoto..

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 70-200mm zoom, along with comparisons to other models and the 200mm f/2L IS. Extensive comparisons at multiple focal lengths..

Canon Ultra-wide Zoom Lenses: 17-40 and 16-35

Comparing the Canon 17-40mm f/4L and 16-35mm f/2.L II..

Zeiss LensSpire Articles

Articles written for

Tripods and Related

Tripods and items for technical excellence..


Focus accuracy and focus shift..

Lens and Camera Issues

Good stuff and not so good stuff..

Photo Tips

Photography Hints and Tips..

Canon EOS R

Canon’s first full-frame mirrorless..

Sony Alpha A7R IV

4th Generation standard-setting camera..

Sony Alpha A7R Shutter Vibration

Vibration from the shutter highly damaging to image sharpness..

Sony FE 20mm f/1.8 G

Compact ultra-wide angle lens..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 GM

High performance mild wide-angle..

Voigtlander FE 35mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

High-grade manual focus wide-normal lens..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM

Fast extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/2.8 GM

Premiere mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

ALLVIEW—Any Lens Live View Camera

Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD.

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-5N

24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..

Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon

Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Sigma sd Quattro H

Mirrorless Sigma Quattro larger APS-H sensor with interchangeable lenses..

Lens Quality control

How good is Leica quality control?.

ALLVIEW— Any Lens Live View Camera

ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD, and especially Leica M-mount.
HISTORICAL, please see Guide to Mirrorless..

Blog posts, reverse chronological


2020-10-18 Swing and Tilt: Subject Distance vs Lens Focusing Offset

2020-10-18 Analyzing Swing and Tilt of Sony A7R IV with Two Samples of Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM

2020-10-16 Update on Sony A7R IV Lens Mount / Sensor Parallelism, Lens Skew of Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM, Coming Field Shooting

2020-10-12 Lens Mount / Sensor Parallelism Inaccuracies Afflict All Brands

2020-10-08 Is It Even POSSIBLE to get a properly aligned Sony A7R IV?

2020-10-07 Sony A7R IV in for Repair of Lens Mount / Sensor Parallelism Problem

2020-06-15 Hasselblad XCD 65mm f/2.8 Aperture Series: View Over Alabama Hills Formations, Last Light on High Peaks

2020-02-19 Why I am Dragging my Feet with the Voigtlander 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar: Possible Issue with Sony A7R IV Lens Mount Flange/Sensor Planarity


2019-02-26 Reader Comment: Panasonic S1R and its L-Mount Lens Choices Including Sigma DG HSM Art Lenses


2018-09-26 The Leica/Panasonic/Sigma Alliance L-Mount Alliance

2018-09-06 Implications of Flange Focal Distance for Adapting Sony Mirrorless Lenses for the Canon Mirrorless RF-Mount and Nikon Mirrorless Z-Mount

2018-09-01 Sigma DG HSM Art Lenses on Sony Mirrorless, and Implications for Nikon Z7 + Nikon FTZ lens Adapter

2018-08-30 Nikon Z7: Optical Design vs the Large-Diameter Z-Mount and Short 16mm Flange Focal Distance


2017-12-18 Update on Nikon D850 Flange Focal Distance

2017-11-29 Nikon D850: Back from Nikon for Checkup on Flange Focal Distance Issue

2017-11-13 Nikon D850: Flange Focal Distance Problem Means that my Zeiss Milvus 18/2.8 reaches End of Its Focusing Range at around 28°F and is Hosed when it goes colder.

2017-11-01 Nikon D850: Flange Focal Distance is WAY Off (2nd Sample)

2017-10-28 Nikon D850: the 2nd Sample is Off Also, both Skewed and Bad Flange Focal Distance

2017-10-17 Nikon D850, Priorities

2017-10-14 Nikon D850 Experience Report: Adjusting Autofocus Accuracy with the Nikon 105mm f/1.4E

2017-10-12 Nikon D850: Mine Also Has a Problematic Flange Focal Distance (way past infinity mark).

2017-10-01 Nikon D850: the Focusing Distance Issues Stem from a Sensor that is not Parallel to the Lens Mount (Nikon quality control issue)

2017-09-29 Nikon D850: Apparent Build Tolerance Error in Flange Focal Distance vs Optical Viewfinder, Causes Major Focus Error with Manual Focus Lenses and Focus Confirmation


2016-02-29 Sigma SD Quattro Mirrorless Cameras


2015-07-16 Left/Right Zone of Focus Skew: Not Always the Lens, the Sensor and Lens Mount Might not be Plane-Parallel

2015-07-06 Sony A7R II, Sony A7R III, Sony A7R IV with Zeiss Otus and other Lenses


2013-12-21 Sony A7R vs Sony A7

2013-12-01 Sony A7R: Lens Support and Lens Mount Torque with Adapted Lenses (Sag, Warp Potential, Shutter Vibration)

2013-09-15 Thoughts on a Full-Frame Sony NEX

2013-07-26 Making Sharp Images new page: Flange to Sensor Alignment, Fantasy Land MTF

2013-04-19 A Camera Plate for the Leica M Typ 240

2013-03-09 What Happens if the Sensor is not Exactly Plane Parallel to the Lens Mount? (UPDATE)

2013-03-01 What Happens if the Sensor is not Exactly Plane Parallel to the Lens Mount?


2012-12-12 Nikon 70-200/4: Torque on the Lens Mount vs 70-200/2.8

2012-01-12 Fuji X-Pro1 — Fujinon XF Lenses on X Mount

2012-01-02 Sony NEX-7: Avoid Subtle Damage to the Lens Mount


2010-03-06 Canon EF 200m f/2L IS


2009-10-08 Where is infinity focus?

2009-08-02 Ultra wide angle lenses and sensor/lens-mount alignment


2006-01-29 Nikon D2X lens mount and/or sensor misalignment

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