An introduction to digital workflow and best practices..
Newest blog posts
2018-08-25 Nikon Z7 Diffraction Compensation
2018-08-25 Nikon Z7: Pinpoint AF
2018-07-11 Reader Question: Color Rendition of Lenses
Working with Photoshop for raw conversion and more..
Sigma/Foveon true-color sensor in a DSLR body..
The best becomes better..
36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..
D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..
D800 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..
Nikon’s pro-body high speed low light wonder..
50 megapixel successor to the 22 megapixel Canon 5D Mark III..
Which speed zoom for the Nikon D800/D800E?.
Nikon’s bread and butter telephoto zoom.
Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..
Nikon vs Canon: Noise and Sharpness.
In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..
Evaluates performance of the Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8 VR on the Nikon D3. Comparison with the Nikon 180mm f/2.8D ED-IF..
Very compact ultra wide angle..
Ultra compact normal lens..
Medium telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..
Telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..
Ultra wide angle tilt shift with tremendous versatility.
Normal lens with tilt/shift.
Ultra wide tilt/shift lens.
[Older material, but still relevant]. Shift lens performance of Nikon/Canon/Schneider/Olympus on various cameras..
[Archive] In-depth review on the Nikon D2x of the Nikon 28mm f/3.5 PC-Nikkor, Nikon 28mm f/4 PC-Nikkor and the Schneider 28mm f/2.8 PC-Super-Angulon. Flare, distortion, color fringing, color rendition, sharpness, ergonomics, aligmnent, sample variation..
Escape the banale postcard look by shooting landscapes at f/1.4 or f/0.95..
36-megapixel full-frame DSLR with SuperRes Pixel Shift Mode..
Full frame ultra wide angle zoom..
- Color Fringing (Lateral Chromatic Aberration) at 15mm, 21mm, 30mm (Pentax K-1 SuperRes)
- Aperture Series @ 15mm, with Pixel Shift: Mosaic (Pentax K-1 SuperRes)
- Aperture Series @ 21mm, with Pixel Shift: Mosaic (Pentax K-1 SuperRes)
- Aperture Series @ 30mm, with Pixel Shift: Mosaic (Pentax K-1 SuperRes)
Full frame slightly wide normal lens, pancake form factor..
Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1 in a normal lens..
Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1..
APS-C wide angle lens equivalent to 22mm on full-frame..
APS-C moderate wide angle lens equivalent to 33mm on full-frame..
APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..
Canon’s compact high-performance 24mm prime..
Canon’s tiny and lovely pancake lens..
Is Canon’s f/1.2 lens really better than an inexpensive f/1.4 or f/1.8?.
Do Canon’s 1.4X and 2X version III tele extenders offer image quality at reasonable apertures?.
Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS .
Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..
Canon’s image stabilized 35mm..
Mid-range optimized groundbreaking f/2 zoom..
A whopping 4/3 stop faster than other lenses in its range..
- Aperture Series + Focus Stack: Dead and Live Aspen, Dusk
- Aperture Series + Focus Stack: Precocious Cluster of Yellow Aspen Leaves
- Focus Stack: Two Aspen at Beaver Pond, Sunset
- Aperture Series: View to High Peaks from Chickenfoot Lake, Sunset
- Aperture Series + Focus Stack: Boulder View to Sub-Peak of Mt Conness
The fastest extreme wide angle yet..
Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..
- Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art
- MTF for Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art
- Vignetting for Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art
- Distortion for Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art
- Shootout: Sigma 24/1.4 Art vs Canon 24/1.4L II, 24/2.8 IS, 24-70/2.8L II, 11-12/4L (Pescadero Creek, Canon 5DM3)
- Shootout: Sigma 24/1.4 Art vs Nikon AF-S 24/1.4G (Dolls, NikonD810)
Sigma’s fast and affordable moderate excellent wide angle..
Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..
Sigma’s best portrait lens..
Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..
Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..
Tilt/Shift by Schneider for Canon and Nikon and other brands..
Wide angle tilt/shift lens at 28mm..
The Sigma 50mm f/1.4 is a worthy contender in the crowded 50mm area. See how it performs compared to the Canon EF 50/1.4 and EF 50/1.2L..
Explores options for 180mm lenses on the Nikon D3x, including the Leica 180/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R in Nikon mount, Nikon 180/2.8 ED, Nikon 70-200/2.8 VR, Nikon 70-300/4.5-5.6 VR, and Tamron 70-200/2.8. Updated: now includes the Voigtlander 180/4 APO!.
Nikon’s latest wide range zoom with vibration reduction and fixed f/4 aperture..
Nikon’s latest 50mm lens compared with the Zeiss ZF 50/1.4, Nikon 50/1.4D and Sigma 50/1.4..
Nikon’s High Performance Moderately-Priced 50mm..
Nikon’s High performance normal lens.
State of the art design in a fast ultra wide angle lens..
Nikon’s workhorse 200mm macro lens, and not just sharp at close-ups!.
Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..
Versatile image-stabilized mid-range zoom..
Versatile autofocus wide angle..
State of the art design in a fast 24mm lens. Includes full-resolution images at f/1.4..
An ultra-fast older design still offers appeal on modern digital..
Comparing the new Nikon 60mm to its predecessors, and the Coastal Optics 60/4 APO..
A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..
Extreme wide angle zoom..
- MTF for Canon 11-24mm f/4L
- Color Fringing, Uncorrected and Corrected, Optical Misalignment? (5DS R)
- Color Fringing in Blue Light: Remarkable Gains From Correction (5DS R)
- Aperture Series @ 11mm: Defunct Mining Hotel Bar (5DM3)
- Aperture Series @ 15mm: Boulders near Mt. Williamson (5DM3)
- Aperture Series @ 11mm: Pescadero Creek Downstream (Canon 5DM3)
- Aperture Series @ 16mm: Pescadero Creek Downstream (Canon 5DM3)
Is the 3rd time the charm?.
Canon’s compact image stabilized wide angle zoom..
Canon’s premium mid-range zooms..
A fast moderate wide angle lens with some practical difficulties..
State of the art design in a fast 35mm lens..
State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..
Nikon’s best-ever f/1.4 lens?.
Relatively compact super-telephoto zoom..
Comparing Nikon 16-35mm f/4 VR, 17-35mm f/2.8, 14-24mm f/2.8, 18-35mm, 24-70mm f/2.8 along with Nikon 20mm f/3.5, 24mm f/2, 28mm f/2, 35mm f/1.4 AIS, and more..
- Personal Usage Notes and Reactions
- Understanding Lens Performance
- Correcting Distortion in Software
- Distortion at 16mm
- Distortion at 17mm
- Distortion at 21mm
- Distortion at 24mm
- Distortion at 28mm
- Distortion at 35mm
- Vignetting at 16mm
- Vignetting at 17mm
- Vignetting at 21mm
- Vignetting at 24mm
- Vignetting at 28mm
- Vignetting at 35mm
- Crops at 16mm — Right Edge
- Conclusions on Mosaic Comparisons —
- Distortion of Nikon 18-35mm f/3.5-5.6 vs Nikon 16-35 f/4 VR
- Vignetting of Nikon 18-35mm f/3.5-5.6 vs Nikon 16-35 f/4 VR
A review of Canon’s new 70-200mm zoom, along with comparisons to other models and the 200mm f/2L IS. Extensive comparisons at multiple focal lengths..
Comparing the 16-35mm f/2.8L II to most of Canon’s wide angle prime lenses. Optical performance, ergonomics, focus, build quality..
Comparing the Canon 17-40mm f/4L and 16-35mm f/2.L II..
Exploring the 16mm fisheye for landscape photography, and correcting fisheye distortion..
Nikon’s ultra wide angle zoom and the Nikon 14mm f/2.8, critical focus shift behavior..
Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.
Perspective control for architecture or landscape as an alternative to Nikon and Canon brand name offerings..
Ultra wide angle lens for Canon and Nikon..
How a lens blurs when out of focus is a Big Deal..
Blur from optical behavior or subject-related issue..
Sharpness loss by camera or support or technique..
Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film..
Evenness of illumination, color shading, digital sensor effects, ray angle..
Making image captures look sharp..
How to choose a camera, lenses, and the other stuff that’s worthwhile..
Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..
Controlling the zone of sharp detail..
- Circle Of Confusion
- What are F-stop and T-stop?
- Format-Equivalent Depth of Field and F-Stop
- Case Study: Format-Equivalent F-Stop: Micro Four Thirds vs 35mm Full Frame (Pellegrino)
- Case Study: Format-Equivalent F-Stop: APS-C vs 35mm Full Frame (Pellegrino)
- Depth of Field at the Periphery
- What is Acceptably Sharp?
Bypass the limits on depth of field and diffraction..
Getting peak performance from your lens.
Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..
Understanding the various optical aberrations and behaviors..
Evenness of illumination across the frame and related effects..
Diffuse haze at wide apertures..
Understanding lateral chromatic aberration (color fringing)..
Understanding Longitudinal (Axial) chromatic aberration (LOCA)..
- Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (LOCA / Violet Fringing)
- Examples of Violet Fringing from Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (LOCA)
- Violet Fringing Case Study (LOCA with Zeiss Otus vs Others)
- Violet Fringing Case Study (LOCA with Zeiss 85mm and Leica 90mm)
- Correcting Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration During RAW Conversion
- Spherochromaticism (Spherical Aberration by Color)
Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (SLOCA)..
How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..
Attention to details: a solid upgrade over the A7R II..
Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..
Fast wide angle..
Fast and gorgeous moderate wide angle Zeiss design..
Fast high performance normal lens of Zeiss design..
- Shootout vs Rokinon FE 50/1.4 AF (Dolls, Sony A7R II)
- Evaluation of Secondary Color: Chrome Grating (Sony A7R II)
- Examples @ f/1.4: Metal, Backlighting and More (Sony A7R II)
- Shootout vs Zeiss Loxia 50/2: Spuller Lake View to Mt Conness (Sony A7R II, Bad Sample of Sony 50/1.4)
- Shootout vs Zeiss Loxia 50/2: Lee Vining Creek Meadow (Sony A7R II)
Compact moderate wide angle for Sony mirrorless..
Compact normal lens for full-frame Sony mirrorless..
Top-grade medium telephoto..
Native-mount macro length designed by Zeiss..
Outstanding fast wide angle, DSLR optical design..
Anything wider would be a fisheye..
Ultra wide native mount manual focus lens for Sony mirrorless..
Fast lens speed for versatile rendering..
Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..
Extreme wide angle zoom..
- Distortion Examples @ 12mm, Uncorrected and Corrected
- Distortion Examples @ 17mm, Uncorrected and Corrected
- Distortion Examples @ 24mm, Uncorrected and Corrected
- Aperture Series @ 12mm: Mosaic
- Aperture Series @ 17mm: Mosaic
- Aperture Series @ 24mm: Mosaic
- Shootout vs Zeiss Loxia 21/2.8: Pescadero Creek Overview
Pro-grade f/2.8 wide angle zoom..
Comapact ultra-wide zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless..
- Distortion Examples @ 16mm / 17mm
- Distortion Examples @ 20mm / 21mm
- Distortion Examples @ 24mm
- Distortion Examples @ 28mm
- Distortion Examples @ 35mm
- Aperture Series @ 16mm: Mosaic (Sony A7R)
- Aperture Series @ 16mm: Dana Lake, Wide View (Sony A7R II)
- Aperture Series @ 24mm: Mosaic (Sony A7R)
- vs Sony FE 35/2.8: Mosaic (Sony A7R)
Premiere mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.
- Distortion @ 24mm: Uncorrected vs Corrected
- Distortion @ 35mm: Uncorrected vs Corrected
- Distortion @ 50mm: Uncorrected vs Corrected
- Distortion @ 70mm: Uncorrected vs Corrected
- Aperture Series @24mm: Redwoods Reaching for the Sun
- Aperture Series @24mm: Mossy Maples Stately Redwoods
- Aperture Series @24mm: Light Searches for the Forest Floor
- Aperture Series @24mm: Finely Detailed Mosaic
- Aperture Series @35mm: Finely Detailed Mosaic
- Aperture Series @50mm: Finely Detailed Mosaic
- Aperture Series @70mm: Side Stream Across The Creek
- Aperture Series @70mm: Finely Detailed Mosaic
Wide angle to telephoto zoom with optical stabilization..
- Distortion Correction @ 24mm: Loss of Sharpness and Micro Contrast (Pixel Shift)
- Distortion @ 35mm: Corrected vs Uncorrected
- Distortion Correction @ 105mm: Loss of Sharpness and Micro Contrast (Pixel Shift)
- Shootout @ 24mm: Sony 24-105/4G OSS vs Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 (Mosaic)
- Shootout @ 35mm: Sony 24-105/4G OSS vs Zeiss Loxia 35mm f/2 (Mosaic)
- Aperture Series @ 50mm: Mosaic
- Aperture Series @ 70mm: Mosaic
- Shootout @ 85mm: Sony 24-105/4G OSS vs Zeiss Loxia 85mm f/2.4 (Mosaic)
- Aperture Series @ 105mm: Mosaic
Wide mid-range zoom targeted at video shooters..
Comapact mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.
Extreme wide angle with 'zero distortion'..
Extreme wide angle macro lens for Sony mirrorless..
Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD.
Does pricey M glass deliver on mirrorless?.
Fixed 28mm lens with APS-C sensor free of anti-aliasing blur with wonderful color..
Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..
- Ricoh GR Introduction
- Ricoh GR Size and Shape
- Shooting Tips
- Ricoh GR Lens Performance
- Ricoh GR Lens MTF Analysis
- White Balance and Tint in Adobe Camera Raw (Outdoor Scene)
- White Balance and Tint in Adobe Camera Raw (Outdoor Portrait)
- Sharpening DNG in Adobe Camera Raw
- Leaf Shutter in Lens: Shutter Speed + Flash Sync
- Examples: Yosemite (Night Shots)
- Examples: White Mountains (Barcroft)
- Examples: White Mountains (General)
- Examples: White Mountain Peak MTB Ascent
- Examples: Portraits Among the Bristlecones
- Examples: Dusk Among the Bristlecones
- Examples: Tioga Pass Resort
- Examples: At the Beach
- Examples: Close Range Portraits
- Bokeh: Out of Focus Rendition
- Dynamic Range and Circular Ring Artifacts
- Dynamic Range and Circular Ring Artifacts #2
- Macro Range: Lincoln Stamp
- Macro Range: Coins
- Shootout: Ricoh GR vs Sigma DP1 Merrill and Fujifilm X-E1 (Dilapidated Green House)
- Shootout: Ricoh GR vs Sigma DP1 Merrill and Fujifilm X-E1 (Bristlecone Graveyard)
- Shootout: Bayer RGGB vs Sigma Foveon X3 (Dilapidated Green House)
- Is the Ricoh GR a 28mm Leica Replacement?
- Operational Assessment: Ricoh GR vs Sigma DP Merrill
Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..
Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..
Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and shoot tiny camera..
Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and wide range zoom..
Wide angle zoom equivalent (14-28mm equivalent)..
A high performance mid-range zoom..
Super telephoto with superb bokeh and color correction..
A fisheye with great contrast and high resolving power..
A fast and lovely 'normal' lens (50mm equiv) for Micro 4/3..
A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..
Superb ergonomic design in a compact camera..
Updated model with hi-res sensor shift mode..
Can smaller sensor cameras compete with larger ones on any basis?.
Panasonic G-1 especially compared to the Olympus E-P1. Intriguing results with RAW vs in-camera JPEG. RAW file included for your own analysis..
Compact sibling of the Fujifilm X-Pro1.
Fujifilm's 24MP APS-C offering..
Wide angle zoom equivalent to 15-36mm.
A compact fast pancake lens..
Fujifilm’s kit zoom for the X-E1.
A bright short telephoto lens..
24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..
Value camera: 24 megapixel APS-C sensor with EVF and vibration-free shutter..
Moderate wide angle for Sony NEX..
Use DSLR lenses at ~native focal length, and gain a stop of speed..
Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..
Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..
Manual focus moderate wide angle for full-frame mirrorless..
Manual focus normal lens for full-frame mirrorless..
Manual focus telephoto lens for full-frame mirrorless..
Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Apochromatic pin-sharp medium telephoto for Sony full-frame mirrorless..
Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..
Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..
Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.
- Aperture Series: Postage Stamp at 1:1.5 (Sony A6000)
- Aperture Series: Green Plants at 1:10 (Sony A7R)
- Aperture Series: Flowing Water, Wet Dark Rocks, Green Grass (Sony A7R, 4 X 5 Crop)
- Aperture Series: Forest Floor Debris (Sony A7R APS-C)
- Aperture Series: Green Grass (Sony A7R, 4 X 5 Crop)
- Aperture Series: Water-Worn Boulders (Sony A7R, 4 X 5 Crop)
- Aperture Series: Fern, Wide-Open vs ƒ/5.6 (Sony A7R, APS-C)
Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..
- Introduction to Leica X Vario
- Accessories for Leica X Vario
- Field Notes
- Autofocus Inconsistency, Backfocus, Manual Focus
- Aperture Series: Pine Creek Mine and Waterfall, Dusk (28mm)
- Aperture Series: Dynamic Range Outdoors (46mm)
- Aperture Series: Brick Building on Summit (28mm)
- Color and Grayscale Examples
- Examples: White Mountains, Various
- vs Sigma DP3 Merrill: (Titanium Ride to the Green Machine)
- vs Sigma DP3 Merrill: (Green Machine, Frontal)
Sigma’s raw file processing software, version 5.x..
21mm f/5.6 equivalent FOV lens..
45mm f/2.8 equivalent FOV lens..
28mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..
45mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..
Adapting lenses delivers degraded results in most cases..
Tips on getting the best results..
Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .
Mid-range zoom lens equivalent to 26-53mm f/3.3..
Moderate wide angle equivalent to 37mm f/2.3..
Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..
High performance macro photography on medium format, equivalent to 99mm f/3.3..
Medium format telephoto lens, 74mm equivalent..
Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..
A price/performance breakthrough?.
50-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR with Live View.
High end image quality, but what about lenses?.
Moderate wide angle lens for Pentax 645..
Wide angle zoom for Pentax 645..
Medium telephoto macro lens for Pentax 645 digital and film..
- Aperture Series @ 90mm (Dolls, 645Z)
- Aperture Series: Decorated Bike (645Z)
- Aperture Series: Dual Aspen Trunks (645Z)
- Aperture Series: Pine Creek Buildings (645Z)
- Aperture Series: Aspen with Black Branches (645Z)
- Aperture Series: Mining Cabin Gearbox (645Z)
- Aperture Series: Death Valley Alluvial Fan Near Eureka Dunes (645Z)
How does Hasselblad’s 3rd generation medium format entry measure up?.
Lens performance at 80 megapixels..
- Rolleiflex Hy6 Mod2 Medium Format Camera System
- Aperture Series: Water Worn Boulders (Schneider 50/2.8 Super Angulon PQS)
- Aperture Series: Creek Meanders Through Boulders (Schneider 50/2.8 Super Angulon PQS)
- Aperture Series: Up the Creek (Rolleiflex AFD 80mm f/2.8 Apogon PQS)
- Aperture Series: Glistening Rocks (Rollei APO-Symmar 90mm f/4 Makro PQS)
- Aperture Series: Down Creek (Zeiss 110/2 Planar PQ)
How does Leica’s medium format entry measure up in ergonomics, image quality, etc?.
Examples and comparison from the various lenses.
Extreme wide angle with ultra high performance..
All-arounder zoom for Leica S.
Moderate wide angle with low distortion..
Milvus garb for the venerable 15/2.8 Distagon, with improved lens coating..
An outstanding 18mm design..
The classic 21/2.8 Distagon improved..
Highest performing 25mm from Zeiss ever..
Highest performing 35mm from Zeiss ever..
Classic design in the latest Milvus build..
Outstanding build and optical quality in a normal lens..
The classic 50/2 Makro-Planar improved..
Outstanding build and optical quality in a medium tele..
- Vignetting for Milvus 85/1.4
- Distortion for Milvus 85/1.4
- Depth of Field Table for Milvus 85/1.4
- Aperture Series: Yellow Flowers by Waterfall (Nikon D810)
- Aperture Series: Yellow Flowers Closeup (Nikon D810)
- Aperture Series: Diagonal Tree At Waterfall Cliff (Nikon D810)
- Aperture Series: Dolls (Nikon D5)
The classic 100/2 Makro-Planar improved..
- Vignetting for Milvus 100/2M
- Distortion for Milvus 100/2M
- Depth of Field Table for Milvus 100/2
- Bokeh Aperture Series: Wild Onion and Shining Lake
- Aperture Series f2 to f/22: Rock Creek White Stripes and White Peaks
- Macro Examples: Shape of Out of Focus Specular Bokeh
- Color Correction Shootout vs Sigma 105/1.4A, Nikon 105/2 DC
On Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..
Start here to best utilize this guide..
Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..
A brilliant, but also colorful character..
- 18/3.5 Distagon Main Page
- Distortion vs Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G
- Vignetting and Color Shading vs Nikon 14-24mm
- Color Fringing (Aspen, Nikon D800E)
- Examples (White Mountains, Nikon D800E)
- Examples ZE/Canon NYC
- Comparisons Overview
- Compared with Nikon 14-24/2.8G - Mosaic
- Compared with Nikon 14-24/2.8G - Church Interior
- Compared with Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L II - Mosaic
- Resolution Chart
Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .
- 21/2.8 Distagon Main Page
- Distortion vs Nikon 14-24/2.8G
- Field Illumination (Vignetting) and Off-Center Color Balance
- Examples Climbing Mt Dana in Yosemite
- Rendering Style at f/2.8, f/4, f/8: Aspen Thicket
- Examples: Lundy Canyon, Brilliance at the Big Beaver Pond
- Aperture Series: Eroding Ancient Bristlecone Pine (D800E)
- vs Nikon 20mm f/1.8G: Mt Conness Glacier Remnants (Nikon D810)
- Aperture Series: Wyman Cabin Trashed Interior (Canon 5DS R)
- vs Nikon 14-24/2.8G, et al
- vs Canon 16-35/2.8L II
- vs Nikon 14-24/2.8G
- vs Nikon 14-24/2.8G and Nikon 16-35/4G VR
- Comparison: 21/2.8 and 25/2.8 Distagon vs Nikon 24/1.4G
Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..
- 25mm f/2 vs 25mm f/2.8 Discussion
- 25/2 Vignetting
- Examples (Yosemite, White Mountains)
- Examples (White Mountains Snowy Day)
- Aperture Series: Backlit Bristlecone (Nikon D800E)
- Aperture Series: Bristlecone Trunks (Nikon D800E)
- Compared: 25/2 vs 25/2.8 (Bristlecone View of White Mountain Peak, Nikon D800E)
- Comparison: 25/2 Distagon vs Canon 24mm ƒ/1.4L II (Woods)
- Comparison: 25/2 Distagon vs Nikon 24/1.4G (Tile Roofs)
- Comparison: 25/2 Distagon vs 25/2.8 Distagon, Nikon 24/1.4G (Water Tanks)
A gem with unusual close-focus..
An artist’s drawing tool..
- 28/2 Distagon Main Page
- Examples — Environmental Portraits
- Examples — Outdoor Portraits (Yosemite)
- Comparison—Nikon D3
- 28/2 Distagon vs Nikon 24-70/2.8G, Nikon 16-35/4G VR, Nikon 28/2
- 28/2 Distagon vs Nikon 28/1.8G, 28/2 AIS, Voigtlander 28/2.8 SL II
- 28/2 Distagon vs Voigtlander Color Skopar 28/2.8 SL II, Nikon 28/2 AIS, Nikon AF-S 28/1.8G
- Aperture Series: Lundy Canyon Beaver Dam (D800E)
- Aperture Series: Mossy Green Boulders Amid Water Polished Rocks (D800E)
- Aperture Series: Creekside Yellow Flowers and Dark Rocks, Lundy Creek (D810)
- Aperture Series: White Mountains Landscape (Nikon D810)
- Aperture Series: Four Aspens, Late Dusk (Sony A7R II)
Strokes of a master..
- 35/1.4 Distagon Main Page
- Distortion For 35/1.4 Distagon
- Discussion of 35/1.4 vs Alternatives
- Lateral Chromatic Aberration (Color Fringing) 35/1.4 vs 35/2
- 35/1.4 Distagon Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (LOCA)
- Examples In The Forest
- Aperture Series: Pine Creek Tungsten Mine Buildings / Waterfall
- Aperture Series: Bristlecone Vista, Late Dusk (Canon 5DS R)
- 35/1.4 Distagon Spherical Aberration Assessment
- Comparison — Zeiss ZE 35 f/2 (Mosaic)
- vs Sigma 35/1.4 and Nikon 35/1.4G (Nikon D800E, Dolls)
- vs Sigma 35/1.4 and Nikon 35/1.4G (Nikon D800E, Wheel)
- vs Sigma 35/1.4 (Nikon D800E, Boulder Logjam)
Balance and poise..
Brilliant imaging in a compact package..
Comparing the two 50mm options near and far, more comparisons coming..
Versatility in a “normal” lens and macro too!.
Fast high performance APO wide angle..
Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..
Rendering style, bokeh and beauty..
Ultra high performance apochromatic medium telephoto, overview and technical..
Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..
Peering into shadows at night with the very best..
King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..
- Vignetting / Relative Illuminance
- Examples: Lundy Canyon, Early Winter
- Comparison to Nikon 105mm f/2.8G VR
- In-depth Comparison to Nikon AF-S 105mm f/2.8 VR ED-IF
- Comparison to Canon EF 100mm f/2.8L IS macro
- Violet Fringing (LOCA) vs Aperture (Sunlit Water Bottles)
- Aperture Series: Pine Creek Tungsten Mine Aerial
Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..
- 135/2 APO-Sonnar Main Page
- MTF Chart
- Max Detail Aperture Series: Mosaic (D800E)
- Macro Quality at 1:4 (D800E, Doll Seated)
- Aperture Series: Glacial Erratics in Tuolumne River (Nikon D800E)
- Aperture Series: White Branches By Creek (Canon 5D Mark III)
- Aperture Series: MTB Gearing (D800 Monochrome)
- Aperture Series: Yellow Aspen at Meadow’s Edge, Blue Dawn (Canon 5DS R)
- Compared to Nikon 135mm f/2 DC (D800E, Rulers on Table)
- Discussion: 135/2 APO-Sonnar vs 100/2 Makro-Planar
- Compared to Zeiss 100mm f/2 Makro-Planar (D800E, Rulers on Table)
- Compared to Canon 135mm f/2L (Canon 5D Mark III, Dolls)
- vs Sigma 135mm f/1.8 Art and Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8 FL ED VR: White Flowers (Nikon D810)
- vs Sigma 135mm f/1.8 Art: Pink Flowers (Nikon D810)
- Performance on 56-megapixel DSLR Pixel Density + MTF (D7100, Dolls)
- APO Behavior vs Leica R APO 100/2.8 and 180/2.8
Articles written for Lenspire.ZEISS.com..
- Focusing Zeiss DSLR Lenses For Peak Performance, PART ONE: The Challenges
- Depth of Field Challenges: Bypass the Limits with Focus Stacking, Near or Far, Macro or Landscape
- Getting Started with Focus Stacking
- Harnessing Wide Angle Lenses: Perspective and Impact
- Zoom Lens or Prime? 50mm and 55mm
- Zoom Lens or Prime? 135mm
- Micro Contrast and the Zeiss 'Pop'
- Zeiss Fills Out the Milvus DSLR Lens Lineup with the 21/2.8, 35/2, 50/2M, 100/2M
- Astrophotography Tips, Especially with Zeiss Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon
Understanding lens performance..
[ARCHIVE, see Making Sharp Images]. Exploring depth of field..
The limits of resolution are governed by physics..
- Nikon D3: Noise from ISO 100 to ISO 25,600
- Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8 VR: Mush In the Corners
- Canon EOS Meets Leica—1D Mark III mated to APO-Summicron-R 90/2 ASPH
- Canon EOS Meets Leica—1D Mark III Mated to APO-Elmarit-R 180/2.8
- An Hour With the Hasselblad 503CWD
- An Hour With the Hasselblad H3D
- Thirty Minutes With the PhaseOne P20
- Three Different Tripods — Gitzo, Manfrotto, Oben
Good stuff and not so good stuff..
Blurry lenses right out of the box..
[ARCHIVE] Software and related for photographers..
Photography Hints and Tips..
High performance prime lenses for Sony NEX and Fujifilm X..
Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon.
- Overview of Zeiss ZF.2/ZE Lenses
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 25mm f/2.8 Distagon
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 28mm f/2 Distagon
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 35mm f/2 Distagon
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 50mm f/1.4 Planar
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 50mm f/2 Makro-Planar
- Zeiss Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 85mm f/1.4 Planar
- Mini Review: Zeiss ZF/ZE 100mm f/2 Makro-Planar
Q&A on the 15/2.8 Distagon with Dr. Hubert Nasse.
A reference lens for color correction..
Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.
Lenses for Leica M cameras, especially the M9.
- Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH
- Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH
- Leica 24mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH
- Leica 24mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH
- Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH
- Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH 2010
- Leica 35mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH
- Leica Noctilux-M 50mm f/0.95 ASPH
- Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH
- Zeiss ZM 15mm f/2.8 Distagon T*
- Zeiss ZM 18mm f/4 Distagon T*
- Zeiss ZM 21mm f/2.8 Biogon T*
- Zeiss ZM 21mm f/4.5 C-Biogon T*
- Zeiss ZM 25mm f/2.8 Biogon T*
- Zeiss ZM 28mm f/2.8 C-Biogon T*
- Zeiss ZM 35mm f/2 Biogon T*
- Zeiss ZM 35mm f/2.8 C-Biogon T*
- Zeiss ZM 50mm f/1.5 C-Sonnar T*
- Zeiss ZM 50mm f/2 Planar T*
- Zeiss ZM 85mm f/2 Sonnar T*
- Zeiss ZM 85mm f/4 Tele-Tessar T*
Relative sharpness and performance across cameras..
Relative sharpness and performance vs APS-C cameras..
24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..
24-megapixel interchangeable lenses, high-res EVF..
All-arounder zoom with dubious optical compromises..
24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..
Off-center color casts, off-center sharpness..
Focal lengths, color, weight and travel considerations. [relevant, but dated/old material].
Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..
Leica’s widest prime lens..
- Notes: 18/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH
- Distortion: 18/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH
- Vignetting: 18/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH
- vs 16/18/21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar: Pescadero Creek (M240)
- Aperture Series: Lundy Pond, Pre-Dawn (M240)
- Aperture Series: Lundy Canyon Sunstar (M240)
- Aperture Series: Backlit Cottonwood at DeChambeau Ranch (M240)
- Aperture Series: Sidelit Barn at DeChambeau Ranch (M240)
Leica’s fastest and widest lens..
Leica’s best-performing 21mm..
Leica’s fast wide angle..
A discontinued but excellent 24mm..
Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..
Leica’s fast 28mm..
Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..
Tweaked 2016 redesign of Leica’s petite performer..
Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..
Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..
- Distortion: 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH
- Vignetting: 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH
- Aperture Series: 35/1.4 — Tile Rooftops Aerial
- Aperture Series: 35/1.4 — Tile Rooftops Aerial (NEX7)
- Compared: 35mm f/1.4 Summilux vs 35/2 Summicron vs Zeiss 35/2 Biogon (M9P, Cabin Sink)
- Compared: 35mm f/1.4 Summilux vs 35/2 Summicron vs Zeiss 35/2 Biogon (M9P, Cabin Exterior)
- 35/1.4 Summilux vs Zeiss 35/2 Biogon (M240, MTB)
- Compared: vs Zeiss ZM 35/2 and Sony 35/2.8 (Sony A7R, Red Barn)
Leica’s f/2 35mm for the M..
Leica’s Budget 35mm lens..
Six models to choose from..
World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..
Understanding the Rendering Style of the Noctilux..
Leica’s superlative normal lens..
The world’s best 50mm lens is outstanding, but with some limits..
- Notes: 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH
- Distortion: 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH
- Vignetting: 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH
- Color Bokeh (Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration, Dolls)
- Aperture Series: Dana Meadow Kuna Peak (M240)
- Aperture Series: Bikes at Night (Sony A7R)
- Aperture Series: Bleached Bristlecone Logs at Blue Dusk (M240)
- Aperture Series: Gnarled Prostrate Bristlecone (M240)
Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..
Leica’s Budget 50mm lens..
Leica’s ultra high grade and ultra fast modern short telephoto..
Leica’s medium tele for Leica M..
Leica’s budget 75mm medium telephoto..
Leica’s longer tele for Leica M..
Leica’s compact 90mm for the M..
Diminutive telephoto and macro lens..
Leica’s longest M lens..
Compact lens for portraiture or similar..
- Vignetting: 90/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH
- Distortion: 90/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH
- Aperture Series: Leaves on Rocks in Creek (Sony A7R)
- Aperture Series: Electrical Substation (M240)
- Secondary Color Correction ('Purple Fringing') vs Zeiss ZM 85/2 and 85/4 (Barn Interior, M240)
- Shootout vs 90/4 Macro and SL 24-90mm: Cerro Gordo Mining Museum
Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..
World’s best mid-range telephoto lens..
Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..
Notes and examples..
Compact high performance, ultra low distortion..
Moderate speed high contrast ultra-wide..
Zero distortion ultra-wide..
Compact wide angle with brilliant contrast..
Compact wide angle..
Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..
- Vignetting for Zeiss ZM 35/1.4 Distagon
- Vignetting vs Effective Aperture at Periphery
- Distortion for Zeiss ZM 35/1.4 Distagon
- Examples at ƒ/1.4 in Eastern Sierra and White Mountains (M240)
- Aperture Series: Backlit Redwood Grove (M240)
- Aperture Series: Rocky Hillside (M240)
- Aperture Series: Granite Glacial Polish to Cloud’s Rest (M240)
- 6-way Shootout: ZM 35/1.4 vs 35/2 and 35/2.8, Leica 35/1.4 and 35/2, Voigtlander 35/1.2 (Wyman Cabin, M240)
- 6-way Shootout: ZM 35/1.4 vs 35/2 and 35/2.8, Leica 35/1.4 and 35/2, Voigtlander 35/1.2 (Pine Creek Morning, M240)
All around razor sharp performer..
Ultra compact high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..
Pleasing and relatively inexpensive normal lens.
Ultra high performance (discontinued).
Compact high performance medium telephoto..
Blog posts, reverse chronological
2018-08-25 Nikon Z7 Diffraction Compensation
2018-08-25 Nikon Z7: Pinpoint AF
2018-07-11 Reader Question: Color Rendition of Lenses
2018-01-20 Working on Sony FE 24-105mm f/4 G OSS
2017-04-11 Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 Distortion Example
2016-12-15 Reader Comments: Stitching and Panoramas
2016-11-07 MTF for the Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art
2016-02-04 Sony Diffraction-Free Computed Fantasy MTF
2016-01-01 Sony RX1R II Distortion
2015-10-22 The Irrational Aim of f/1.4 Lenses
2015-09-17 King of Bokeh, well-controlled SLOCA?
2015-08-08 Sony A7R II with Leica M Lenses
2015-07-08 Reader Question: Diffraction
2015-02-24 Mitigating Color Aliasing via Diffraction
2015-02-05 Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM Ultra Wide Zoom
2014-10-15 Nikon 20mm f/1.8G ED: Distortion
2014-04-09 Why Is an f/1.2 Lens so Dark on Digital?
2014-02-15 Readers Comment on the Sony A7 / A7R
2013-09-06 Samyang 14mm f/2.8: Lens Skew Asymmetry
2013-09-03 Sony RX1R: Correcting Lens Distortion
2013-08-12 Leica M Typ 240 Lens Coding Failures
2013-08-04 Reader Inquiry: Sony RX100 vs RX100 II
2013-04-26 Dream Camera: Big Sensor Fixed Lens
2013-02-23 On the Way: Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar
2012-12-11 Nikon 70-200mm f/4G ED VR Distortion
2012-09-09 Sony RX100: DXO Optics Pro vs ACR
2012-04-26 Optimal Aperture for Nikon D800
2012-04-25 Nikon D4 Optimal Aperture (Diffraction)
2012-04-25 Nikon D800 Optimal Aperture (Diffraction)
2012-03-16 Reader Comments: Zeiss 15/2.8 Distagon
2012-03-07 Diffraction, Sharpness and Nikon D800E
2012-02-07 Nikon D800E: Moiré
2012-01-23 Why no Custom Lens Correction on Leica M9?
2011-10-26 Zeiss 25mm f/2 Distagon Announced
2011-06-21 Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH
2011-06-04 Fuji Finepix X100 — Lens Distortion
2010-11-13 Nikon 24-120mm f/4G VR comments
2010-09-15 Nikon D7000
2010-05-20 Global cooling? Local at least.
2009-10-12 Carl Zeiss on lens distortion
2009-09-29 Zeiss ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon example image
2009-09-11 Canon TS-E 24/3.5L II distortion
2009-02-15 Canon 5D Mark II Live View vignetting
2009-01-30 Nikon D3x and PC-E tilt/shift lenses
2008-12-28 D3x diffraction study
2008-11-11 Tip of the day: Depth of field
2008-08-09 Shutterbug review of Nikon PC-E 45/2.8
2008-06-26 Depth of field, diffraction, and megapixels
2008-06-14 New article on vignetting
2008-06-14 Resolution limits for digital SLRs
2008-04-30 The future of resolution, 36 megapixels?
2008-04-25 Canon EOS 1DsM3 — detail galore
2008-03-30 Atmospheric distortion
2008-02-15 Lens distortion
2007-12-15 Digital SLR resolution — the future
2007-11-13 Diffraction, a real-world example
2007-11-03 Diffraction and digital SLRs
2007-10-24 In the market for a point and shit camera?
2007-09-17 Zeiss ZF 28mm f/2 Distagon announced
2006-05-30 Consumer digicams and diffraction