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Workflow Tips and technique

An introduction to digital workflow and best practices..

Photoshop How-To

Working with Photoshop for raw conversion and more..

Sigma SD1 Merrill

Sigma/Foveon true-color sensor in a DSLR body..

Nikon D850

The best becomes better..

Nikon D800E

36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D800E vs D800

D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..

Nikon D800 Monochrome Conversion by MaxMax.com

D800 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..

Nikon D4

Nikon’s pro-body high speed low light wonder..

Nikon D3200

24-megapixel APS-C consumer DSLR..

Canon EOS 5DS / 5DS R

50 megapixel successor to the 22 megapixel Canon 5D Mark III..

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/4 ED VR and 70-200mm f/2.8 ED VR II

Which speed zoom for the Nikon D800/D800E?.

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II

Nikon’s bread and butter telephoto zoom.

Nikon D3x 24.4-megapixel DSLR review

Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..

Canon 1D Mark IV

Canon 1D Mark IV 16-megapixel DSLR..

Canon EOS 5D Mark II review

Canon 5D Mark II impressions.

Nikon vs Canon: noise and sharpness

Nikon vs Canon: Noise and Sharpness.

Canon 14mm f/2.8L II

In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..

Special Report: Nikon AF-S VR Zoom-Nikkor 70-200mm f/2.8G ED-IF

Evaluates performance of the Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8 VR on the Nikon D3. Comparison with the Nikon 180mm f/2.8D ED-IF..

Voigtlander 20mm f/3.5 Color-Skopar

Very compact ultra wide angle..

Voigtlander 40mm f/2.8 SL II Color-Skopar

Ultra compact normal lens..

Voigtlander 90mm f/3.5 APO-Lanthar SL II

Medium telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..

Voigtlander 180mm f/4 APO-Lanthar

Telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..

Canon TS-E 17/4L

Ultra wide angle tilt shift with tremendous versatility.

Canon TS-E 24/3.5L II

Canon TS-E 24mm f/3.5L II.

Canon TS-E 45mm f/2.8

Normal lens with tilt/shift.

Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E

Ultra wide tilt/shift lens.

Shift Lenses for Nikon and Canon

[Older material, but still relevant]. Shift lens performance of Nikon/Canon/Schneider/Olympus on various cameras..

28mm Shift Lenses for Nikon

[Archive] In-depth review on the Nikon D2x of the Nikon 28mm f/3.5 PC-Nikkor, Nikon 28mm f/4 PC-Nikkor and the Schneider 28mm f/2.8 PC-Super-Angulon. Flare, distortion, color fringing, color rendition, sharpness, ergonomics, aligmnent, sample variation..

Landscape Photography at Wide Apertures

Escape the banale postcard look by shooting landscapes at f/1.4 or f/0.95..

Pentax K-1

36-megapixel full-frame DSLR with SuperRes Pixel Shift Mode..

Pentax HD FA 15-30mm f/2.8 ED SDM WR

Full frame ultra wide angle zoom..

Pentax SMCP-FA 43mm f/1.9 Limited

Full frame slightly wide normal lens, pancake form factor..

Pentax smc P-D FA 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1 in a normal lens..

Pentax smc Pentax-D FA 100mm f/2.8 WR Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1..

Pentax HD DA Limited 15mm f/4 ED

APS-C wide angle lens equivalent to 22mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 21mm f/3.2 AL

APS-C moderate wide angle lens equivalent to 33mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro

APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..

Canon 24mm f/2.8 IS USM

Canon’s compact high-performance 24mm prime..

Canon 40mm f/2.8 STM

Canon’s tiny and lovely pancake lens..

Canon 50mm Lenses

Is Canon’s f/1.2 lens really better than an inexpensive f/1.4 or f/1.8?.

Canon TC III

Do Canon’s 1.4X and 2X version III tele extenders offer image quality at reasonable apertures?.

Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS

Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS .

Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..

Canon 35mm f/2 IS

Canon’s image stabilized 35mm..

Canon 200-400mm f/4L IS

Canon’s versatile super telephoto..

Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art

Fast constant-aperture ultrawide zoom..

Sigma 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

Mid-range optimized groundbreaking f/2 zoom..

Sigma 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

A whopping 4/3 stop faster than other lenses in its range..

Sigma 20mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

The fastest extreme wide angle yet..

Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..

Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast and affordable moderate excellent wide angle..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..

Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s best portrait lens..

Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..

Sigma Telephoto APO Macro Lenses: 150mm, 180mm

Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..

Schneider PC-TS Perspective Control Tilt/Shift Lenses

Tilt/Shift by Schneider for Canon and Nikon and other brands..

Schneider PC-TS Super-Angulon 28mm f/4.5 HM Aspheric

Wide angle tilt/shift lens at 28mm..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 EX DG HSM on Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III

The Sigma 50mm f/1.4 is a worthy contender in the crowded 50mm area. See how it performs compared to the Canon EF 50/1.4 and EF 50/1.2L..

180mm Lenses for the Nikon D3x

Explores options for 180mm lenses on the Nikon D3x, including the Leica 180/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R in Nikon mount, Nikon 180/2.8 ED, Nikon 70-200/2.8 VR, Nikon 70-300/4.5-5.6 VR, and Tamron 70-200/2.8. Updated: now includes the Voigtlander 180/4 APO!.

Nikon AF-S 24-120mm f/4G VR

Nikon’s latest wide range zoom with vibration reduction and fixed f/4 aperture..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s latest 50mm lens compared with the Zeiss ZF 50/1.4, Nikon 50/1.4D and Sigma 50/1.4..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s High Performance Moderately-Priced 50mm..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 58mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s High performance normal lens.

Canon 24mm f/1.4L II

State of the art design in a fast ultra wide angle lens..

Nikon AF Micro Nikkor 200mm f/4.0D IF-ED

Nikon’s workhorse 200mm macro lens, and not just sharp at close-ups!.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 20mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8E ED VR

Versatile image-stabilized mid-range zoom..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24mm f/1.8G

Versatile autofocus wide angle..

Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4G ED

State of the art design in a fast 24mm lens. Includes full-resolution images at f/1.4..

Olympus Zuiko Auto-S 50mm f/1.2

An ultra-fast older design still offers appeal on modern digital..

Nikon AF-S 60mm f/2.8G Macro

Comparing the new Nikon 60mm to its predecessors, and the Coastal Optics 60/4 APO..

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..

Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Canon 16-35mm f/2.8L III

Is the 3rd time the charm?.

Canon 16-35mm f/4L IS

Canon’s compact image stabilized wide angle zoom..

Canon 24-70mm f/2.8L II and 24-70mm f/4L IS

Canon’s premium mid-range zooms..

Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.8G

A fast moderate wide angle lens with some practical difficulties..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 35mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 85mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 105mm f/1.4E ED

Nikon’s best-ever f/1.4 lens?.

Nikon AF-S 200-500mm f/5.6E ED VR

Relatively compact super-telephoto zoom..

Nikon Ultra Wide Zooms

Comparing Nikon 16-35mm f/4 VR, 17-35mm f/2.8, 14-24mm f/2.8, 18-35mm, 24-70mm f/2.8 along with Nikon 20mm f/3.5, 24mm f/2, 28mm f/2, 35mm f/1.4 AIS, and more..

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 70-200mm zoom, along with comparisons to other models and the 200mm f/2L IS. Extensive comparisons at multiple focal lengths..

Canon-Wide Angle Prime Lenses

Comparing the 16-35mm f/2.8L II to most of Canon’s wide angle prime lenses. Optical performance, ergonomics, focus, build quality..

Canon Ultra-wide Zoom Lenses: 17-40 and 16-35

Comparing the Canon 17-40mm f/4L and 16-35mm f/2.L II..

Nikon AF 16mm f/2.8D Fisheye

Exploring the 16mm fisheye for landscape photography, and correcting fisheye distortion..

Nikon AF-S 14-24mm f/2.8G ED

Nikon’s ultra wide angle zoom and the Nikon 14mm f/2.8, critical focus shift behavior..

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Rokinon 24mm f/3.5 Tilt-Shift Lens

Perspective control for architecture or landscape as an alternative to Nikon and Canon brand name offerings..

Samyang 14mm f/2.8

Ultra wide angle lens for Canon and Nikon..

Nikon 24mm Lens Choices

Options for a 24mm lens: Nikon 14-24/2.8G, Nikon 24-70/2.8G, Nikon 24/2 AI-S, Nikon PC-E 24/3.5. Sharpness, distortion, flare, field curvature, shooting impression and ergonomics..

Bokeh and Blur

How a lens blurs when out of focus is a Big Deal..

Sharpness and Blur by Optics

Blur from optical behavior or subject-related issue..

Blur from Camera or Support

Sharpness loss by camera or support or technique..

Appendices

Glossary and further reading..

Digital Sensor Technology

Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film..

Ray Angle, Vignetting, Color Shading on a Digital Sensor

Evenness of illumination, color shading, digital sensor effects, ray angle..

Post Processing for Sharpness

Making image captures look sharp..

Choosing Equipment

How to choose a camera, lenses, and the other stuff that’s worthwhile..

How To Get Peak Sharpness With Perfect Focus

Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..

Depth of Field

Controlling the zone of sharp detail..

Focus Stacking Overview

Bypass the limits on depth of field and diffraction..

Diffraction

Getting peak performance from your lens.

Understanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..

Optical Aberrations and Behaviors

Understanding the various optical aberrations and behaviors..

Vignetting (Field Illumination)

Evenness of illumination across the frame and related effects..

Spherical Aberration

Diffuse haze at wide apertures..

Astigmatism

Understanding astigmatism..

Lateral Chromatic Aberration

Understanding lateral chromatic aberration (color fringing)..

Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration

Understanding Longitudinal (Axial) chromatic aberration (LOCA)..

Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration

Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (SLOCA)..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Optical Behavior (Case Studies)

Illuminating examples of lens behavior..

Sony Alpha A7R III

Attention to details: a solid upgrade over the A7R II..

Sony Alpha A7R

Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..

Sony FE 28mm f/2

Fast wide angle..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 Distagon ZA

Fast and gorgeous moderate wide angle Zeiss design..

Sony Planar T* FE 50mm f/1.4 ZA

Fast high performance normal lens of Zeiss design..

Sony FE 35mm f/2.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact moderate wide angle for Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 55mm f/1.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact normal lens for full-frame Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 85mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade medium telephoto..

Sony 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS

Native-mount macro length designed by Zeiss..

Sigma FE 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Outstanding fast wide angle, DSLR optical design..

Voigtlander FE Heliar-Hyper 10mm f/5.6 Aspherical III

Anything wider would be a fisheye..

Voigtlander FE Super Wide-Heliar 15mm f/4.5 Aspherical III

Ultra wide native mount manual focus lens for Sony mirrorless..

Voigtlander FE Nokton 40mm f/1.2 Aspherical

Fast lens speed for versatile rendering..

Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 Macro APO-Lanthar Aspherical

Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/2.8 GM

Pro-grade f/2.8 wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/4 ZA OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact ultra-wide zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/2.8 GM

Premiere mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 24-105mm f/4 G OSS

Wide angle to telephoto zoom with optical stabilization..

Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

Wide mid-range zoom targeted at video shooters..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/4 OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Venus Optics Laowa 12mm f/2.8 Zero-D

Extreme wide angle with 'zero distortion'..

Venus Optics Laowa 15mm f/4 Macro

Extreme wide angle macro lens for Sony mirrorless..

ALLVIEW—Any Lens Live View Camera

Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD.

Leica M Lenses on Olympus OM-D E-M5

Does pricey M glass deliver on mirrorless?.

Fujifilm Finepix X100

The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.

Nikon Coolpix A

Fixed 28mm lens with APS-C sensor free of anti-aliasing blur with wonderful color..

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot RX1R II

Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..

Sony DSC-RX100

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and shoot tiny camera..

Sony DSC-RX10 III

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and wide range zoom..

Olympus M.Zuiko 7-14mm f/2.8 PRO

Wide angle zoom equivalent (14-28mm equivalent)..

Olympus Zuiko 12-40mm f/2.8 PRO Zoom

A high performance mid-range zoom..

Olympus M.Zuiko 17mm f/1.8

A fast moderate wide angle..

Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 300mm f/4 IS PRO

Super telephoto with superb bokeh and color correction..

Panasonic Lumix G 8mm f/3.5 Fisheye

A fisheye with great contrast and high resolving power..

Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 25mm f/1.4 ASPH Micro 4/3

A fast and lovely 'normal' lens (50mm equiv) for Micro 4/3..

Sigma DN 19mm f/2.8

Wide angle for Micro Four Thirds or Sony E Mount/NEX..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Olympus OM-D E-M5

Superb ergonomic design in a compact camera..

Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II

Updated model with hi-res sensor shift mode..

Comparisons across format.

Can smaller sensor cameras compete with larger ones on any basis?.

Olympus E-P1 micro-4/3 camera

Great image quality, but....

Panasonic G-1 micro-4/3 camera

Panasonic G-1 especially compared to the Olympus E-P1. Intriguing results with RAW vs in-camera JPEG. RAW file included for your own analysis..

Fujifilm X-E1

Compact sibling of the Fujifilm X-Pro1.

Fujifilm X-Pro2

Fujifilm's 24MP APS-C offering..

Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS

Wide angle zoom equivalent to 15-36mm.

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 18mm f/2 R

A compact fast pancake lens..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 18-55mm f/2.8-4 R

Fujifilm’s kit zoom for the X-E1.

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 56mm f/1.2

A bright short telephoto lens..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 60mm f/2.4 R

Short telephoto macro lens..

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-5N

24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..

Sony Alpha A6000

Value camera: 24 megapixel APS-C sensor with EVF and vibration-free shutter..

Zeiss 24mm f/1.8 for Sony NEX

Moderate wide angle for Sony NEX..

Metabones SpeedBooster for Sony NEX

Use DSLR lenses at ~native focal length, and gain a stop of speed..

Zeiss Loxia 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..

Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..

Zeiss Loxia 35mm f/2 Biogon

Manual focus moderate wide angle for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Loxia 50mm f/2 Planar

Manual focus normal lens for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Loxia 85mm f/2.4 Sonnar

Manual focus telephoto lens for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon

Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon

Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 135mm f/2.8 APO-Sonnar

Apochromatic pin-sharp medium telephoto for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Leica X Vario

Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..

Sigma Photo Pro Software 5.x

Sigma’s raw file processing software, version 5.x..

Sigma dp0 Quattro

21mm f/5.6 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma dp2 Quattro

45mm f/2.8 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma DP1 Merrill

28mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP2 Merrill

45mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP3 Merrill

75mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Adapting Other Lenses to Fujifilm GFX

Adapting lenses delivers degraded results in most cases..

Fujifilm GFX Image Processing

Tips on getting the best results..

Fujifilm GFX Image Quality

Image quality assessments..

Fujifilm GF 23mm f/4 R WR

Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .

Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 R LM WR

Mid-range zoom lens equivalent to 26-53mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8 R WR

Moderate wide angle equivalent to 37mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 120mm f/4 Macro R LM OIS WR

High performance macro photography on medium format, equivalent to 99mm f/3.3..

Hasselblad XCD 21mm f/4

18mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 30mm f/3.5

25mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 45mm f/3.5

37mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2

Medium format telephoto lens, 74mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 120mm f/3.5

Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..

Pentax 645D 40-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

A price/performance breakthrough?.

Pentax 645Z Overall

50-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR with Live View.

Pentax 645Z Image Quality

High end image quality, but what about lenses?.

Pentax SMC DA 645 25mm f/4 AL (IF) SDM AW

Ultra wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax HD 35mm f/3.5 AL [IF]

Moderate wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax 645 HD DA 28-45mm f/4.5 ED AW SR

Wide angle zoom for Pentax 645..

Pentax 645 90mm f/2.8 D FA 645 Macro ED AW SR

Medium telephoto macro lens for Pentax 645 digital and film..

Hasselblad H4D 50 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Hasselblad’s 3rd generation medium format entry measure up?.

Rolleiflex Hy6 Mod 2 Medium Format System

Lens performance at 80 megapixels..

Leica S2 37.5 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Leica’s medium format entry measure up in ergonomics, image quality, etc?.

Leica S Examples

Examples and comparison from the various lenses.

Lenses

Lenses for the Leica S2 (original Leica S2 material).

Leica 24mm f/3.5 Super-Elmar-S ASPH

Extreme wide angle with ultra high performance..

Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH

All-arounder zoom for Leica S.

Leica 45mm f/2.8 Elmarit-S ASPH

Moderate wide angle with low distortion..

Leica 100mm f/2 Summicron-S ASPH

The fastest S lens..

Image Quality Issues

Unique challenges of digital infrared..

Wrap-up and Summary

Conclusions and where to find products and additional information..

Milvus 15mm f/2.8

Milvus garb for the venerable 15/2.8 Distagon, with improved lens coating..

Milvus 18mm f/2.8

An outstanding 18mm design..

Milvus 21mm f/2.8

The classic 21/2.8 Distagon improved..

Milvus 25mm f/1.4

Highest performing 25mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 35mm f/1.4

Highest performing 35mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 35mm f/2

Classic design in the latest Milvus build..

Milvus 50mm f/1.4

Outstanding build and optical quality in a normal lens..

Milvus 50mm f/2M

The classic 50/2 Makro-Planar improved..

Milvus 85mm f/1.4

Outstanding build and optical quality in a medium tele..

Milvus 100mm f/2M

The classic 100/2 Makro-Planar improved..

Milvus 135mm f/2

On Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..

Introduction

Start here to best utilize this guide..

Optical Performance

Sharpness and rendering..

15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..

18mm f/3.5 Distagon

A brilliant, but also colorful character..

21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .

25mm f/2 Distagon

Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..

25mm f/2.8 Distagon

A gem with unusual close-focus..

28mm f/2 Distagon

An artist’s drawing tool..

35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Strokes of a master..

35mm f/2 Distagon

Balance and poise..

50mm f/1.4 Planar

Brilliant imaging in a compact package..

50/1.4 Planar vs 50/2 Makro-Planar

Comparing the two 50mm options near and far, more comparisons coming..

50mm f/2 Makro-Planar

Versatility in a “normal” lens and macro too!.

Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Fast high performance APO wide angle..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and beauty..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar

Ultra high performance apochromatic medium telephoto, overview and technical..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..

85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Night Vision

Peering into shadows at night with the very best..

85mm f/1.4 Planar

True-to-life imagery..

100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..

135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..

Conclusions

Summary and wrap-up..

Zeiss LensSpire Articles

Articles written for Lenspire.ZEISS.com..

Understanding optics

Understanding lens performance..

Depth of Field

[ARCHIVE, see Making Sharp Images]. Exploring depth of field..

Diffraction

The limits of resolution are governed by physics..

Subjective Lens Qualities

Also known as shading..

Misc Reviews

Miscellaneous reviews..

Lens and Camera Issues

Good stuff and not so good stuff..

Brand-new Blur

Blurry lenses right out of the box..

Software issues.

[ARCHIVE] Software and related for photographers..

Photo Tips

Photography Hints and Tips..

Grab Bag

Various articles..

Overview of Zeiss Touit Lenses

High performance prime lenses for Sony NEX and Fujifilm X..

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon.

15mm f/2.8 Distagon Zeiss Interview

Q&A on the 15/2.8 Distagon with Dr. Hubert Nasse.

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A reference lens for color correction..

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Canon lenses

Overview and assessments of Canon lenses.

Nikon lenses

Overview and assessments of Nikon lenses.

Lenses for Leica M8, Leica M9, M*

Lenses for Leica M cameras, especially the M9.

Nikon D200 vs D2x

Vintage 2006 comparative review of Nikon D200 vs Nikon D2x..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To Full Frame Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance across cameras..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To APS-C Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance vs APS-C cameras..

Leica M Monochrom (original)

Ultimate resolution in black and white..

Leica M Monochrom Typ 246

24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..

Leica SL Typ 601

24-megapixel interchangeable lenses, high-res EVF..

Leica 24-90mm f/2.8-4 Vario-Elmarit-SL ASPH OIS

All-arounder zoom with dubious optical compromises..

Leica Q (Typ 116)

24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..

Ray angle and Color Shading With M Lenses

Off-center color casts, off-center sharpness..

Considerations in choosing a lens.

Focal lengths, color, weight and travel considerations. [relevant, but dated/old material].

Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..

Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s widest prime lens..

Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fastest and widest lens..

Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 21mm..

Leica 24mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast wide angle..

Leica 24mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH

A discontinued but excellent 24mm..

Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..

Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast 28mm..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (2016)

Tweaked 2016 redesign..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (2016)

Tweaked 2016 redesign of Leica’s petite performer..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..

Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH (2010 FLE)

Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..

Leica 35mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s f/2 35mm for the M..

Leica 35mm f/2.5 Summarit-M

Leica’s Budget 35mm lens..

Leica M 50mm Lenses

Six models to choose from..

Leica 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH

World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..

50/0.95 Noctilux Rendering Style

Understanding the Rendering Style of the Noctilux..

Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s superlative normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

The world’s best 50mm lens is outstanding, but with some limits..

Leica 50mm f/2 Summicron-M

Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2.5 Summarit-M

Leica’s Budget 50mm lens..

Leica 75mm f/1.25 Noctilux-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra high grade and ultra fast modern short telephoto..

Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s medium tele for Leica M..

Leica 75mm f/2.4 (2.5) Summarit-M

Leica’s budget 75mm medium telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s longer tele for Leica M..

Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M

Leica’s retro telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2.4 (2.5) Summarit-M

Leica’s compact 90mm for the M..

Leica 90mm f/4 Macro-Elmar-M

Diminutive telephoto and macro lens..

Leica 135mm f/3.4 APO-Telyt-M

Leica’s longest M lens..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Leica 100mm f/2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R

Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..

Leica 180mm f/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R

World’s best mid-range telephoto lens..

Leica 280mm f/4 APO-Telyt-R

Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..

Zeiss ZM 15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Notes and examples..

Zeiss ZM 18mm f/4 Distagon

Compact high performance, ultra low distortion..

Zeiss ZM 21mm f/2.8 Biogon

Moderate speed high contrast ultra-wide..

Zeiss ZM 21mm f/4.5 C-Biogon

Zero distortion ultra-wide..

Zeiss ZM 25mm f/2.8 Biogon

Compact wide angle with brilliant contrast..

Zeiss ZM 28mm f/2.8 C-Biogon

Compact wide angle..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/2 Biogon

All around razor sharp performer..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/2.8 C-Biogon

Ultra compact high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Zeiss ZM 50mm f/2 Planar

Pleasing and relatively inexpensive normal lens.

Zeiss ZM 85mm f/2 Sonnar

Ultra high performance (discontinued).

Zeiss ZM 85mm f/4 Tele-Tessar

Compact high performance medium telephoto..

ALLVIEW— Any Lens Live View Camera

ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Eliminating the camera body barrier— any kind of lens with Live View EVF and LCD, and especially Leica M-mount.
HISTORICAL, please see Guide to Mirrorless..


Blog posts, reverse chronological

2018

2018-08-25 Nikon Z7 Diffraction Compensation

2018-08-25 Nikon Z7: Pinpoint AF

2018-07-31 Zeiss Milvus 100mm f/2M Color Correction Shootout vs Nikon 105mm f/2 DC and Sigma 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art: Glacial erratic and eroded pine stump

2018-07-25 Hasselblad PR: “Real World” Comparison: Nikon D850 with Decrepit Nikon 17-35mm f/2.8 Zoom Compared Without Format Equivalence or Validation of Basics

2018-07-11 Reader Question: Color Rendition of Lenses

2018-07-06 Reader Question on Vignetting for Zeiss Loxia 50mm f/2 Planar

2018-03-13 Venus Optics Laowa 12mm f/2.8 Zero-D: Three Aperture Series + Distortion Explained

2018-02-22 Venus Optics Laowa 12mm f/2.8 Zero-D Aperture Series: Milling Lathe

2018-01-28 Sony A7R III Pixel Shift: How Distortion Correction Affects Micro Contrast and Sharpness with Sony 24-105/4G OSS @ 105mm

2018-01-28 Sony A7R III Pixel Shift: How Distortion Correction Affects Micro Contrast and Sharpness with Sony 24-105/4G OSS @ 24mm

2018-01-20 Working on Sony FE 24-105mm f/4 G OSS

2017

2017-11-01 Zeiss Milvus 25mm f/1.4 Stacking Examples: Glacier Canyon and Dana Lakes (Nikon D850)

2017-10-27 Nikon D850: 'Focus shift shooting' Feature Most Important Feature since Live View; Focus Stacking is the ONLY Solution to Full Resolution Images

2017-10-18 Zeiss Milvus 25mm f/1.4: MTF, Distortion, Vignetting

2017-10-06 Sigma 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art Aperture Series: Precocious Cluster of Yellow Aspen Leaves

2017-07-24 Sony 12-24mm f/4G Aperture Series @ 12mm: Pescadero Creek, Upstream (Sony A7R II)

2017-07-23 Sony 12-24mm f/4G Distortion: Uncorrected vs Corrected

2017-07-11 Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G: Aperture Series at 17mm and 24mm (Mosaic)

2017-07-10 Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G: Aperture Series at 12mm (Mosaic)

2017-07-07 Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G: Might Have Serious Drawbacks

2017-04-13 Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 @32mm Focus Stack: Barroom Interior

2017-04-11 Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 Distortion Example

2017-03-07 Fujifilm GFX 50s + 120mm f/4 Macro Plus Diffraction and Sharpening Evaluations

2016

2016-12-29 Color Fringing in Blue Light: Gains From Correction with Canon 11-24mm f/4L (5DS R)

2016-12-18 Zeiss Milvus 18mm f/2.8 Aperture Series: Frosty Wood Round

2016-12-15 Reader Comments: Stitching and Panoramas

2016-12-08 Zeiss Loxia 85mm f/2.4 MTF Series from f/2.4 to f/16

2016-12-08 Zeiss Milvus 18mm f/2.8: Full MTF Series from f/2.8 through f/16

2016-11-07 MTF for the Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

2016-09-19 Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art in Nikon, Canon, Sigma SA Mount

2016-09-15 Zeiss Announces Loxia 85mm f/2.4 for Sony Mirrorless

2016-09-08 Zeiss Announces ALL NEW Milvus 18mm f/2.8 for Nikon and Canon DSLRs

2016-06-20 Leica SL vs M240: Lens Corrections and Color Rendering with M Lenses

2016-06-17 Leica SL a Replacement for M240 when Shooting M lenses?

2016-05-12 Reviewed: Voigtlander Super Wide-Heliar 15mm f/4.5 Aspherical III for Sony E: Aperture Series from f/4.5 - f/11: Mosaic

2016-04-26 Sony G Master 24-70mm f/2.8 GM Distortion Examples, Uncorrected vs Corrected

2016-04-20 Optical Distortion: Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 and Voigtlander 15mm f/4.5 for Sony Mirrorless

2016-04-14 REVIEWED in Depth: the NEW Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon

2016-04-14 Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon: Data Sheet Confusing Because Distortion Graph is Software-Corrected (only)

2016-02-21 Pentax K1: Impressive Innovation Unmatched by CaNikon

2016-02-04 Sony Diffraction-Free Computed Fantasy MTF

2016-01-01 Sony RX1R II Distortion

2015

2015-12-20 Sigma 20mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art Aperture Series: Distortion examples, Uncorrected and Corrected

2015-10-22 The Irrational Aim of f/1.4 Lenses

2015-09-17 King of Bokeh, well-controlled SLOCA?

2015-09-16 Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH: Analysis/Example of SLOCA (Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration)

2015-09-13 On Secondary Color: Collective Context-Dropping regarding Zeiss Milvus 50/1.4 Distagon

2015-08-08 Sony A7R II with Leica M Lenses

2015-07-19 Leica Q: Really not a 24MP Camera and not a 28mm Lens (in effect)

2015-07-08 Reader Question: Diffraction

2015-07-06 Canon 5DS R: Corrections for Color Fringing More Important than at Lower Resolution

2015-06-13 Reader Inquiry: Banding, Posterization, Color Shifts (and the right workflow)

2015-06-13 Sony FE 28mm f/2 Aperture Series: Gnarled Stump in Snowstorm, Hoover Wilderness (Sony A7R)

2015-06-10 Announced: Sony RX10 Mark II, Sony RX100 Mark IV

2015-05-27 Leica M Monochrom Typ 246: Aperture Series to Assess Diffraction and Digital Artifacts (Dolls)

2015-05-27 Sony: Which Lens Corrections are Baked Into the Raw ARW File?

2015-05-26 Sony FE 28mm f/2 Aperture Series: Knobby Boulder in Creek (Sony A7R)

2015-05-26 Sony FE 28mm f/2: Strong Distortion and How Correcting it Damages Sharpness

2015-05-22 Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH Initial Coverage and Comments

2015-04-30 Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH Aperture Series @ 51mm: 'Pescadero Creek Pool'

2015-04-29 Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH Aperture Series @ 90mm: 'Grass Clumps in Boulder'

2015-04-29 Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon: MTF Series from f/2 - f/16 + Distortion

2015-04-29 Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar: MTF Series from f/1.8 - f/16 + Distortion

2015-04-23 Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH Aperture Series @ 30mm: 'Mossy Boulders in Pescadero Creek'

2015-04-21 Leica S with the Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH

2015-04-09 Table of f-stops: Full Stops, 1/2 Stops, 1/3 Stops (Depth of Field)

2015-03-27 Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art: Vignetting and Distortion

2015-03-16 Manzanar (WW II Relocation Camp for Japanese Americans)

2015-02-25 Mitigating Color Aliasing via Diffraction (Leica M240, but applies to any/all)

2015-02-24 Mitigating Color Aliasing via Diffraction

2015-02-05 Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM Ultra Wide Zoom

2014

2014-11-29 Sony FE 16-35mm f/4: Distortion at 16mm, 20/21mm, 24mm, 28mm, 35mm

2014-10-15 Nikon 20mm f/1.8G ED: Distortion

2014-09-08 Image Circle Size for 55/1.4 APO-Distagon and 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

2014-08-13 Reader Question: Image Brightness at Full Aperture vs Stopped Down

2014-07-11 B&H Photo Now Offers Free Expedited Shipping (1/2/3 days depending on location)

2014-06-10 Zeiss ZF.2 / ZE Distortion: 15/2.8, 18/3.5, 21/2.8 Distagons

2014-06-07 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Discussing Optical and Autofocus Expectations, LOCA

2014-05-31 Zeiss 85mm f/1.4 Planar: Dual-Focus Aperture Series 'Radio Towers' (D800E)

2014-05-30 Nikon 58mm f/1.4G: Distortion Uncorrected and Corrected

2014-05-25 Format Equivalent Depth of Field: APS-C vs Full Frame

2014-05-19 Format Equivalent Depth of Field: a Non-Alcoholic Demonstration (Micro Four Thirds vs Full Frame)

2014-05-13 My Most Important Publication: Making Sharp Images

2014-04-10 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-04-09 Color Shading (Vignetting by Color) on Digital Sensors

2014-04-09 Why Is an f/1.2 Lens so Dark on Digital?

2014-04-08 Color Correction (LOCA, Secondary LOCA, LACA)

2014-04-02 Zeiss Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon: Secondary Color Correction Comparison (Canon 5D Mark III)

2014-03-31 Secondary Color Correction with Leica 90/2 APO, Zeiss ZM 85mm f/4 Tele-Tessar, ZM 85/2 Sonnar: Barn Interior (Leica M240)

2014-03-26 Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH: Field of View, Distortion, MTF

2014-03-18 Astigmatism and Lateral Color: Why Performance is Lens + Sensor (aka why do my expensive lenses suck on mirrorless)

2014-02-28 Guide to Leica: Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH, Aperture Series: Sidelit Barn at DeChambeau Ranch

2014-02-27 Guide to Leica: Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH, Aperture Series: Backlit Cottonwood at DeChambeau Ranch

2014-02-23 Ricoh GR: Circular Ring Artifacts (“Ring Shadow Effect”) Followup

2014-02-17 Guide to Leica: Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH, Aperture Series: Colorful Leaves on Still Pool (M Typ 240)

2014-02-17 Guide to Leica: Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH, Aperture Series: Sunlit Grasses with Colorful Leaves (M Typ 240)

2014-02-16 Sony FE 24-70mm f/4 OSS Vario-Tessar: Aperture Series at 43mm, 70mm + Distortion and Color Fringing at 43mm, 70mm

2014-02-15 Readers Comment on the Sony A7 / A7R

2014-02-10 Sony FE 24-70mm f/4 OSS Vario-Tessar: Distortion and Color Fringing at 24mm

2014-01-30 Olympus E-M1 + 12-40mm f/2.8 PRO @ 12mm: Aperture Series with Diffraction and Quality Discussion (Boulder Logjam)

2014-01-22 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-01-13 Mitigating A7R Micro Contrast Diffraction Losses with Sharpening

2014-01-06 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2013

2013-12-06 Sony A7R: Shading, Color Shading and Lens Compensation

2013-09-06 Samyang 14mm f/2.8: Lens Skew Asymmetry

2013-09-03 Sony RX1R: Correcting Lens Distortion

2013-08-12 Leica M Typ 240 Lens Coding Failures

2013-08-04 Reader Inquiry: Sony RX100 vs RX100 II

2013-07-26 Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH: Glacial Erratics and Focus Placement (Leica M Typ 240)

2013-07-19 Ricoh GR: Flash Sync and Shutter Speeds, Leaf Shutter

2013-07-16 Zeiss 21mm f/2.8 Distagon: Eroding Bristlecone Giant (Nikon D800E)

2013-05-18 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar: MTF and Distortion and Vignetting Charts (for Sony NEX + Fuji X)

2013-05-17 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon: MTF and Distortion and Vignetting Charts (for Sony NEX + Fuji X)

2013-05-11 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar: Correcting Distortion in Adobe Camera Raw

2013-05-10 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon: Distortion Correction in JPEG, vs RAW

2013-05-10 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar: Distortion Correction in JPEG, vs RAW

2013-05-04 Lens Corrections for Native Lenses on Sony NEX and Fuji X

2013-04-26 Dream Camera: Big Sensor Fixed Lens

2013-04-21 Mitigating Contrast Loss From Diffraction aka How to Make f/16 Look Crisp

2013-04-10 Leica M Monochrome with Color Filters and Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

2013-04-02 Mitigating Contrast Loss From Diffraction aka How to Make f/16 Look Crisp

2013-03-22 How Does the Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar Perform on a 56-Megapixel DSLR?

2013-03-19 MTF at f/22 with the Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

2013-03-05 Is there a New Trend in Compact Cameras? (fixed lens, large sensor, Nikon Coolpix A)

2013-02-23 On the Way: Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar

2012

2012-12-15 Sony RX1: Aperture Series, Distortion Correction

2012-12-11 Nikon 70-200mm f/4G ED VR Distortion

2012-10-30 Canon 24-70mm f/2.8L II: Bokeh and Correcting Color Fringing

2012-10-14 Sigma DP1 Merrill — Correcting Lateral Chromatic Aberration

2012-10-08 Zeiss UP Line of Ultra Performance Lenses for Nikon and Canon

2012-09-27 Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar for Nikon and Canon — Superlative Performer

2012-09-13 Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar MTF from f/2 - f/16

2012-09-11 New Article in Workflow: Local Contrast enhancement

2012-09-09 Sony RX100: Adobe Camera RAW 7.2 RC Distortion Correction = FORCED ON

2012-09-09 Sony RX100: DXO Optics Pro vs ACR

2012-09-07 Zeiss ZF.2 / ZE 135mm f/2 APO Sonnar for Canon or Nikon

2012-09-04 Canon 24mm f/2.8 IS: Field Curvature and Color Fringing Study

2012-07-27 At Which Aperture Does Diffraction Degrade Olympus OM-D E-M5 Image Sharpness?

2012-07-16 Understanding Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration with the Zeiss 100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

2012-05-21 Filtration for Leica M Monochrom to Improve Image Sharpness and Tonal Separation

2012-05-03 Nikon D800E Diffraction Behavior with Aperture Series

2012-04-26 Optimal Aperture for Nikon D800

2012-04-25 Nikon D4 Optimal Aperture (Diffraction)

2012-04-25 Nikon D800 Optimal Aperture (Diffraction)

2012-03-16 New ZEISS 15mm f/2.8 Distagon T* Ultra Wide Angle Lens

2012-03-16 Reader Comments: Zeiss 15/2.8 Distagon

2012-03-07 Diffraction, Sharpness and Nikon D800E

2012-02-09 Reader Comments: “how a lens draws” — Leica vs Zeiss/Nikon/Canon/Pentax

2012-02-07 Nikon D800E: Moiré

2012-01-23 Color Shading & Vignetting for Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH and 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH

2012-01-23 Sony NEX-7 Color Shading & Vignetting vs Sony 24mm f/1.8 Sonnar

2012-01-23 Why no Custom Lens Correction on Leica M9?

2012-01-09 Leica M9: Color Shading for 12 Lenses With/Without Lens Correction

2012-01-05 Sony NEX-7: Loss of Contrast and Resolution from Diffraction

2011

2011-12-13 Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) Always Corrects Distortion With Some Cameras

2011-12-01 Reader Asks: Is There Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Lateral Chromatic Aberration?

2011-11-18 Lateral Chromatic Aberration: Nikon 24mm f/1.4G

2011-11-11 Adobe ACR Lens Profile for Zeiss 35mm f/1. 4 Distagon?

2011-11-01 Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH for Leica M9 On The Way For Testing

2011-10-27 Leica 30mm f/2.8 Elmarit-S ASPH for Leica S2 Medium Format

2011-10-26 Zeiss 25mm f/2 Distagon Announced

2011-06-21 Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

2011-06-04 Fuji Finepix X100 — Lens Distortion

2011-04-04 Lateral Chromatic Aberration (Color Fringing) With Zeiss 35/1.4 Distagon vs Zeiss 35/2 Distagon

2011-01-14 Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Distagon MTF, distortion, vignetting

2010

2010-11-13 Nikon 24-120mm f/4G VR comments

2010-09-15 Nikon D7000

2010-07-26 Update: axial chromatic aberration and filtration

2010-07-25 Leica S2: axial chromatic aberration with Leica 70mm f/2.5 Summarit-S ASPH

2010-07-24 Aperture shape — is it circular? Does it matter for bokeh?

2010-07-08 Hasselblad user examines Leica S2 pre-review coverage

2010-05-20 Global cooling? Local at least.

2009

2009-12-09 Carl Zeiss announces Zeiss ZE 50mm f/2 and Zeiss ZE 100mm f/2 Makro-Planar for Canon EOS

2009-10-12 Carl Zeiss on lens distortion

2009-09-29 Zeiss ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon example image

2009-09-11 Canon TS-E 24/3.5L II distortion

2009-02-15 Canon 5D Mark II Live View vignetting

2009-01-30 Nikon D3x and PC-E tilt/shift lenses

2008

2008-12-28 D3x diffraction study

2008-11-11 Tip of the day: Depth of field

2008-08-14 Vignetting Control in Nikon Capture NX 2 (24-70)

2008-08-09 Shutterbug review of Nikon PC-E 45/2.8

2008-07-07 Zeiss ZF 18mm f/3.5 Distagon MTF, Distortion, etc

2008-06-26 Depth of field, diffraction, and megapixels

2008-06-14 New article on vignetting

2008-06-14 Resolution limits for digital SLRs

2008-04-30 The future of resolution, 36 megapixels?

2008-04-25 Canon EOS 1DsM3 — detail galore

2008-03-30 Atmospheric distortion

2008-02-15 Lens distortion

2007

2007-12-15 Digital SLR resolution — the future

2007-11-13 Diffraction, a real-world example

2007-11-03 Diffraction and digital SLRs

2007-10-24 In the market for a point and shit camera?

2007-09-17 Zeiss ZF 28mm f/2 Distagon announced

2007-04-05 Followup on Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L II color fringing

2006

2006-10-15 How far to stop down for adequate depth of field?

2006-05-30 Consumer digicams and diffraction

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