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Digital Sensor Technology

Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film..

Post Processing for Sharpness

Making image captures look sharp..

Color Gamut and Color Space

Color space for digital images. .

Workflow Tips and technique

An introduction to digital workflow and best practices. .

Photoshop How-To

Working with Photoshop for raw conversion and more. .

Faux HDR and High Dynamic Range

Tips for processing high dynamic range images. .

Frame Averaging

Maximizing dynamic range and image quality by minimizing noise via multiple exposures..

Expose To The Right (ETTR)

Maximizing image quality, dynamic range, minimizing digital noise. .

Focus Stacking Post-Processing

Post-Processing software and Technique..

Diffraction

Getting peak performance from your lens.

Optical Behavior (Case Studies)

Illuminating examples of lens behavior..

Nikon D800E

36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D800 / D800E Image Quality Best Practices

Image quality best practices and how-to with the Nikon D800/D800E..

Nikon D800E vs D800

D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..

Nikon D800 Monochrome Conversion by MaxMax.com

D800 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..

Nikon D850 Monochrome Conversion by MaxMax.com

D850 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..

Nikon D800E vs Canon EOS 5D Mark III

Comparing the 2012/2013 high-res pro DSLRs..

Canon EOS 1D X

18 megapixel big black brick, Canon’s top of the line DSLR..

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

22 megapixel successor to the popular 5D Mark II..

Canon EOS 5DS / 5DS R

50 megapixel successor to the 22 megapixel Canon 5D Mark III..

Sony A900

The 24.6 megapixel Sony A900 digital SLR is compared with Canon’ top-of-the-line 21.1MP EOS 1Ds Mark III. A field report including two comparisons with the Canon 1Ds Mark IIII, example images in color and black and white, and the Zeiss ZA 135mm f/1.8 Sonnar. Anti-Shake (SteadyShot) is assessed, as is noise behavior..

Nikon D3x 24.4-megapixel DSLR review

Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..

Noise ×4: Nikon D3x, Nikon D3, Canon 5D Mark II, & Canon 1Ds Mark III

Noise performance of early 2009’ premier digital SLRs. ISOs from 50 through 25600, dark area noise, noise reduction effects, noise versus resolution. Can more smaller pixels beat fewer large ones?.

Nikon vs Canon: noise and sharpness

Nikon vs Canon: Noise and Sharpness.

Voigtlander 90mm f/3.5 APO-Lanthar SL II

Medium telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..

Voigtlander 180mm f/4 APO-Lanthar

Telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..

Pentax HD FA 15-30mm f/2.8 ED SDM WR

Full frame ultra wide angle zoom..

Pentax HD FA 50mm f/1.4 SDM AW

All-new high performance design..

Pentax smc PENTAX-FA 77mm f/1.8

Full frame medium telephoto..

Pentax smc P-D FA 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1 in a normal lens..

Pentax smc Pentax-D FA 100mm f/2.8 WR Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1..

Pentax HD DA Limited 15mm f/4 ED

APS-C wide angle lens equivalent to 22mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro

APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..

Canon 85mm Lenses

Canon’s ultra-fast medium telephoto compared and in the field.

Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..

Sigma 14-24mm f/2.8 DG HSM Art

Superwide optimized zoom lens..

Sigma 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

Mid-range optimized groundbreaking f/2 zoom..

Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s best portrait lens..

Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..

Sigma Telephoto APO Macro Lenses: 150mm, 180mm

Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..

Nikon AF-S 24-120mm f/4G VR

Nikon’s latest wide range zoom with vibration reduction and fixed f/4 aperture..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 20mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..

Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4G ED

State of the art design in a fast 24mm lens. Includes full-resolution images at f/1.4..

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..

Canon EF 11-24mm f/4L USM

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Canon 24-70mm f/2.8L II and 24-70mm f/4L IS

Canon’s premium mid-range zooms..

Nikon AF-S 85mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 105mm f/1.4E ED

Nikon’s best-ever f/1.4 lens?.

Nikon Ultra Wide Zooms

Comparing Nikon 16-35mm f/4 VR, 17-35mm f/2.8, 14-24mm f/2.8, 18-35mm, 24-70mm f/2.8 along with Nikon 20mm f/3.5, 24mm f/2, 28mm f/2, 35mm f/1.4 AIS, and more..

Schneider Kreuznach LS 150mm f/2.8 IF

Medium telephoto 100mm equivalent for Phase One XF system.

Fujifilm GFX 50S/R Image Processing

Tips on getting the best results..

Fujifilm GFX 50S Image Quality

Image quality assessments..

Fujifilm GF 23mm f/4 R WR

Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .

Fujifilm GF 30mm f/3.5 R LM WR

Compact wide angle.

Fujifilm GF 35-70mm f/4.5-5.6

Compact wide angle.

Fujifilm GF 50mm f/3.5 R LM WR

Slightly wide compact normal lens equivalent to 41mm f/2.9..

Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..

Hasselblad XCD 21mm f/4

18mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 45mm f/3.5

37mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 120mm f/3.5

Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 135mm f/2.8

Moderate telephoto..

Pentax 645Z Image Quality

High end image quality, but what about lenses?.

Pentax 645 Lenses (645D tests)

A variety of 645 lens tests on the 645D.

Pentax HD 35mm f/3.5 AL [IF]

Moderate wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax 645 HD DA 28-45mm f/4.5 ED AW SR

Wide angle zoom for Pentax 645..

Pentax 645 90mm f/2.8 D FA 645 Macro ED AW SR

Medium telephoto macro lens for Pentax 645 digital and film..

Rolleiflex Hy6 Mod 2 Medium Format System

Lens performance at 80 megapixels..

Mamiya DL28 medium format 28 megapixel system

The Mamiya DL28 offers the Mamiya 645 AFD III, the new Sekor AF 80mm f/2.8D lens and the Leaf Aptus-II 6 digital back. Image quality is outstanding and the DL28 should definitely be considered by anyone looking into medium format..

Leica S Examples

Examples and comparison from the various lenses.

Leica 24mm f/3.5 Super-Elmar-S ASPH

Extreme wide angle with ultra high performance..

Leica 30-90mm f/3.5-5.6 Vario-Elmar-S ASPH

All-arounder zoom for Leica S.

Milvus 100mm f/2M

The classic 100/2 Makro-Planar improved..

Introduction

Start here to best utilize this guide..

15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..

ZF.2/ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .

25mm f/2 Distagon

Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..

28mm f/2 Distagon

An artist’s drawing tool..

35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Strokes of a master..

50mm f/2 Makro-Planar

Versatility in a “normal” lens and macro too!.

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..

100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..

135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..

Canon RF 24-70mm f/2.8L IS USM

Fast standard zoom lens..

Nikon Z7 Image Quality

Image quality..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S

Ultra wide compact zoom for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/4 S

Mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 85mm f/1.8 S

Fast portrait telephoto for Nikon Z..

Sony A1

Technological tour de force..

Sony Alpha A7R IV

4th Generation standard-setting camera..

Sony Alpha A7R III

Attention to details: a solid upgrade over the A7R II..

Sony Alpha A7R II

Attention to details: a big upgrade over the A7R..

Sony Alpha A7R

Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..

Sony FE 40mm f/2.5 G

High performance, high speed..

Sony FE 85mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade medium telephoto..

Sony 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS

Native-mount macro length designed by Zeiss..

Sigma FE 14-24mm f/2.8 DG DN Art

Native-mount ultra wide angle high performance zoom for mirrorless..

Sigma FE 35mm f/2 DG DN Contemporary

Compact native-mount wide angle..

Sigma FE 85mm f/1.4 DG DN Art

Ultra high performance medium telephoto..

Voigtlander FE Heliar-Hyper 10mm f/5.6 Aspherical III

Anything wider would be a fisheye..

Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 Macro APO-Lanthar Aspherical

Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/2.8 GM

Pro-grade f/2.8 wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/2.8 GM

Premiere mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 24-105mm f/4 G OSS

Wide angle to telephoto zoom with optical stabilization..

Venus Optics Laowa 12mm f/2.8 Zero-D

Extreme wide angle with 'zero distortion'..

Ricoh GXR with A12 Mount for Leica M Lenses.

Use Leica M lenses on a digital back designed for them..

Fujifilm Finepix X100

The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.

Nikon Coolpix A

Fixed 28mm lens with APS-C sensor free of anti-aliasing blur with wonderful color..

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot RX1R II

Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..

Sony DSC-RX100

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and shoot tiny camera..

Sony DSC-RX10 III

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and wide range zoom..

Olympus Zuiko 75mm f/1.8 ED Telephoto

Beautiful bokeh, long reach fast speed, compact lens..

Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 300mm f/4 IS PRO

Super telephoto with superb bokeh and color correction..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Olympus OM-D E-M5

Superb ergonomic design in a compact camera..

Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II

Updated model with HighRes sensor shift mode..

Comparisons across format.

Can smaller sensor cameras compete with larger ones on any basis?.

Olympus E-P1 micro-4/3 camera

Great image quality, but....

Fujifilm X-E1

Compact sibling of the Fujifilm X-Pro1.

Fujifilm X-Pro1

Interchangeable lenses on a 16MP APS-C sensor.

Fujifilm X-Pro2

Fujifilm's 24MP APS-C offering..

Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS

Wide angle zoom equivalent to 15-36mm.

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 18-55mm f/2.8-4 R

Fujifilm’s kit zoom for the X-E1.

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 60mm f/2.4 R

Short telephoto macro lens..

Zeiss Loxia 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..

Zeiss Loxia 35mm f/2 Biogon

Manual focus moderate wide angle for full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon

Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Leica X Vario

Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..

Panoramas with the iPhone 6s Plus

Shooting + post processing tips with high-res examples..

Leica X2

Leica’s large-sensor 'affordable' compact camera..

Overview of Sigma Foveon Sensor cameras

Foveon X3 true-color sensor for outstanding resolution..

Sigma dp0 Quattro

21mm f/5.6 equivalent FOV lens..

Sigma DP2 Merrill

45mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP3 Merrill

75mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To Full Frame Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance across cameras..

Leica M Monochrom Typ 246

24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..

Leica Q (Typ 116)

24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..

Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s widest prime lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

High performance but flawed 50mm normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 Summicron-M

Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..

Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s medium tele for Leica M..

Leica 90mm f/4 Macro-Elmar-M

Diminutive telephoto and macro lens..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Voigtlander Ultron 21mm f/1.8

Fast high performance wide angle..

Voigtlander M 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

World-class performer for Leica M..

ALLVIEW Cameras

ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Terrific backup bodies or even primary body for M-mount lenses..


Blog posts, reverse chronological

2021

2021-12-13 In Praise of Digital vs Film (UPDATED, v3)

2020

2020-06-16 Hooray! Adobe Camera Raw Now Has Option to Always Use Sidecar XMP files with DNG

2019

2019-12-30 Too-High Pixel Density on 5K and 8K Displays Impedes Image Sharpness Assessment

2019-11-28 Need Advice/Help with Phase One Capture One Pro Sharpening Tools (UPDATE with reader comments)

2019-09-21 Exploring Frame Averaging for Sony A7R IV (Updated with reader comments)

2019-04-07 Panasonic S1R: How Much to Sharpen During Raw Conversion in Adobe Camera Raw + Adobe Camera Raw Enhance Details

2018

2018-12-26 Workflow Tip: Locking DNG Files to Prevent Modification by Lightroom/Photoshop, Greatly Reduces Backup Time

2018-10-06 Nikon Z7: RAW vs JPEG

2018-07-25 Hasselblad PR: “Real World” Comparison: Nikon D850 with Decrepit Nikon 17-35mm f/2.8 Zoom Compared Without Format Equivalence or Validation of Basics

2018-01-24 Sony A7R III: Pixel Shift vs Single Frame on Finely Detailed Subject

2017

2017-12-26 Sony A7R III: the Noise Behavior that Has Been Troublesome to Me

2017-05-23 Too-High Pixel Density on 5K and 8K Displays Impedes Image Assessment

2017-03-07 Fujifilm GFX 50s + 120mm f/4 Macro Plus Diffraction and Sharpening Evaluations

2017-01-07 Too-High Pixel Density on 5K and 8K Displays Impedes Image Assessment

2016

2016-07-07 iPhone Panoramas In Depth: Shooting & Post Processing Tips, Numerous Examples up to 11K Resolution

2016-04-02 REVIEWED: Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 OIS: Examples and More (Carrizo Plain, X-Pro2)

2016-03-17 Fujifilm X-Pro2: How Much to Sharpen in Adobe Camera Raw?

2015

2015-08-07 Sony A7R II: Raw Files Are Still 'Cooked'

2014

2014-05-13 My Most Important Publication: Making Sharp Images

2014-04-07 Reader Comment: 14.75MP True-Color Sigma DP Merrill vs 36MP Sony A7R

2014-01-13 Mitigating A7R Micro Contrast Diffraction Losses with Sharpening

2014-01-12 Sharpening Sony A7R Raw Files

2014-01-07 Olympus OM-D E-M1: Noise, Color Space for Raw Conversion, Sharpening

2013

2013-05-10 Iridient Developer Updated to Version 2.1 with Support for Fuji XTrans Sensor

2013-05-02 Nikon D800E vs Canon 5D Mark III: Sharpness

2013-04-21 Mitigating Contrast Loss From Diffraction aka How to Make f/16 Look Crisp

2013-04-02 Mitigating Contrast Loss From Diffraction aka How to Make f/16 Look Crisp

2013-03-21 Nikon D7100 Initial Impressions

2012

2012-08-04 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 — Which to Choose?

2012-07-31 Olympus OM-D E-M5: How Much To Sharpen in Adobe Camera RAW

2012-07-27 Canon EOS 1D X: How Much To Sharpen in Adobe Camera RAW

2012-07-22 A Few Thoughts on the Nikon D800E

2012-05-25 Portrait Photographer Asks: D800 or D800E or D3s or D4?

2012-05-21 Reader Comments on Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 Definitive Comparison

2012-05-21 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 Sharpening Noise Evaluation

2012-05-19 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 Definitive Comparison with Leica 100/2.8 APO

2012-05-08 Reader Comment on Nikon D800: Aliasing

2012-05-03 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 — How Sharpening Affects Results

2012-05-03 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800 Sharpness and Sharpening

2012-05-02 Nikon D800E vs Nikon D800

2012-04-22 Fujifilm X-Pro1 Review

2012-04-19 Nikon D800E

2012-04-01 Canon 5D Mark III ISO Series versus Sharpening

2012-02-07 Nikon D800E — Nikon’s Sample Photos

2011

2011-12-26 Reader Comments on Settings for RAW files from Fuji X10 with ACR

2011-12-13 Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) Now Supports the Fuji X10, But Sharpening Problematic

2011-03-15 Sharpening for f/1.4 with the Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

2011-01-06 Reader comment and question on Making Sharp Images

2010

2010-07-23 Deconvolution sharpening vs sharpening in Adobe Camera RAW

2010-07-22 Deconvolution sharpening to counteract the anti-aliasing (blur) filter on the Nikon D3x (or Canon) — comparison revisited with the Leica S2

2008

2008-02-21 Nikon fixes Capture NX sharpening bug

2007

2007-12-13 Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III vs Nikon D3—resolution

2007-12-05 Nikon D3 with 24-70 and 14-24 and more

2007-12-04 Nikon D3 —California Buckeye nuts

2007-12-04 Nikon Capture NX sharpening bug!

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