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Blur from Camera or Support

Sharpness loss by camera or support or technique..

Digital Sensor Technology

Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film..

Ray Angle, Vignetting, Color Shading on a Digital Sensor

Evenness of illumination, color shading, digital sensor effects, ray angle..

Depth of Field

Controlling the zone of sharp detail..

Understanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..

Vignetting (Field Illumination)

Evenness of illumination across the frame and related effects..


Understanding astigmatism..

Camera and Lens Tolerances

Sharpness issues related to camera and lens tolerances and build quality..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Sony Alpha A7 II

Sensor stabilized 24MP full-frame..

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..

Sony DSC-RX100

Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and shoot tiny camera..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Olympus OM-D E-M5

Superb ergonomic design in a compact camera..

Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II

Updated model with hi-res sensor shift mode..

Comparisons across format.

Can smaller sensor cameras compete with larger ones on any basis?.

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Sigma dp Quattro Cameras

Mid-2014 models with newly designed 3-layer APS-C sensor..

Sigma DP1 Merrill

28mm f/2.8 equivalent lens on APS-C sensor..

Leica M Typ 240 In Use

Overall design and behavior..

Leica M Monochrom Typ 246

24-megapixel CMOS monochrome sensor..

M9: User’s Guide and Review

High resolution digital rangefinder.

M9 Rear LCD, Image Review

Modern digital features lacking with the M9..

Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s widest prime lens..

Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 21mm..

Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

The world’s best 50mm lens is outstanding, but with some limits..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s longer tele for Leica M..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Zeiss ZM 21mm f/4.5 C-Biogon

Zero distortion ultra-wide..

Blog posts, reverse chronological


2018-10-09 Nikon Z7: Thin 1.1mm Sensor Cover Glass Gives Promise of using M-Mount Lenses with Good Performance

2018-09-29 Panasonic Bolsters the Full-Frame Mirrorless Market with All new Sensor in Panasonic S1R and Panasonic S1

2018-09-26 Sigma Full-Frame Foveon-Sensor Camera with L-Mount

2018-09-04 Sensor Technology: Might Panasonic/Fujifilm Deliver an Awesome New Organic High Dynamic Range 8K Sensor That Competes with Sony?


2017-11-18 Nikon D850: Is Lack of Availability Due to Limited Sensor Supply? Whose Sensor?

2017-10-03 Nikon D850: Misaligned Sensor Example Images

2017-10-01 Nikon D850: the Focusing Distance Issues Stem from a Sensor that is not Parallel to the Lens Mount (Nikon quality control issue)

2017-09-16 The PhaseONE IQ3 100 Megapixel Trichromatic Sensor/Camera

2017-05-15 Leica M9/M9P: Corroded Sensor Repairs

2017-05-09 Fujifilm GFX Sensor Quality

2017-05-03 Fujifilm GFX Sensor Cover Glass Thickness?

2017-01-11 Fujifilm GFX: Might a Zeiss Otus Image Circle Fill Most of the Sensor?

2017-01-07 Reader Question: Sensor Pixel Density, Oversampling


2016-12-12 The D810 as a 73-Megapixel Medium Format Camera with a 49mm X 36mm Virtual Sensor: Nikon 19mm f/4E ED PC-E Shift-Lens Stitching (Alpine Creek)

2016-11-01 Approaching Potential Sensor Resolution: Focus Stacking at 50 Megapixels (Lundy Beaver Pond, Canon 5Ds R)

2016-10-29 Approaching Potential Sensor Resolution: Focus Stacking at 50 Megapixels (Spotted Boulder, Canon 5Ds R)

2016-08-04 Sigma on “File Bloat”

2016-07-05 Hasselblad X1D-50C: Sensor Size and Pixel Quality in regards to Aspect Ratio

2016-07-01 Hasselblad X1D-50C: Sensor Size and Pixel Quality

2016-04-24 Rumors of High Megapixels True or Not, Oversampling for Image Quality Makes Sense: 109 Megapixel Tulips via Sony RX100


2015-10-27 Spectral Transmission of Digital Sensors

2015-08-08 Sony A7R II with Leica M Lenses

2015-08-05 Olympus M.ZUIKO 7-14mm f/2.8 PRO Aperture Series @14mm: Dana Lake, Water View + Sensor Shift Artifacting

2015-07-16 Left/Right Zone of Focus Skew: Not Always the Lens, the Sensor and Lens Mount Might not be Plane-Parallel

2015-07-08 Reader Question: Diffraction

2015-06-10 Announced: Sony A7R II with 42-Megapixel sensor, In-Body-Image-Stabilization, 4K Video

2015-06-07 Leica M Monochrom Typ 246: At Least Two Sensor Column Defects

2015-03-27 Emerging Features that Are Essential: Make the Camera Work for YOU

2015-03-25 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Hi-Res Sensor Shift Mode EXAMPLES

2015-03-25 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Hi-Res Sensor Shift Mode vs Standard-res, NOISE Compared

2015-03-20 Hi-Res Sensor Shift: Can 16 megapixels become 40 megapixels?

2015-03-20 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Just How Good is the Hi-Res Sensor Shift Mode?

2015-03-08 Olympus OMD E-M5 Mark II: Sensor Shift Mode (updated)

2015-01-17 Modified Sony A7R Sensor Glass: Impact on Rangefinder Lens Performance

2015-01-16 Sony A7R: Sensor Glass Thickness, Ray Angle and Image Degradation: Kolarivision Modification


2014-12-24 Think Otus for High-Res Sensors

2014-12-11 Leica M CCD Sensor White Spots

2014-08-27 Nikon D810: Sensor Cover Glass Quality?

2014-07-20 Nikon D810 Image Quality

2014-06-25 Nikon D810 Leaked Specs: Improved Sensor, EFC Shutter

2014-05-27 Sony A6000: Sensor Quality at ISO 100

2014-05-22 24 Megapixels: Sensor Quality APS-C vs Full Frame

2014-05-21 Sigma dp Quattro Sensor Spectral Sensitivity for True-Color Images with Full Spatial Resolution

2014-05-20 EVF and Sensor Resolution: Higher is So Much Better for Critical Focus

2014-05-13 Thoughts on Panasonic GH4 and GH4 Video Quality vs Sony A7s (Sensor Size)

2014-04-15 Future Sensors: Will they be Friendly to Rangefinder Lenses? (Ray Angle)

2014-04-09 Color Shading (Vignetting by Color) on Digital Sensors

2014-03-25 Sony CMOS 44 X 33mm Medium Format Sensor: Coming to a new Sony Camera?

2014-03-18 Astigmatism and Lateral Color: Why Performance is Lens + Sensor (aka why do my expensive lenses suck on mirrorless)

2014-03-05 Chicken Vision: an Idea from Nature for a Digital Sensor Design?

2014-01-30 Micro Four Thirds and APS-C? Whither the Future? Wither the Future?

2014-01-29 Sony CMOS 44 X 33mm Medium Format Sensor: Will It Go Into a Sony Camera?


2013-12-04 Sigma SD1 Merrill with Foveon Sensor: Easy Conversion to Infrared

2013-11-30 Debayering a Color Sensor

2013-10-23 Sony RX10 Full-Sensor Readout = Higher Quality?

2013-09-14 SHOOTOUT: Leica X Vario vs Ricoh GR (Brick Building)

2013-09-13 SHOOTOUT: Leica X Vario vs Sigma DP3 Merrill (Green Machine, Frontal View)

2013-09-10 SHOOTOUT: Leica X Vario vs Sigma DP3 Merrill (Moots Ride to Green Machine)

2013-07-26 Making Sharp Images new page: Flange to Sensor Alignment, Fantasy Land MTF

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Aspect Ratio

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Lens Size

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Size and Weight Realities

2013-07-24 Micro Four Thirds vs APS-C: Summary

2013-07-21 Sigma Foveon X3 True-Color Sensor vs Bayer Matrix RGGB Sensor

2013-06-04 Graphene for a Digital Sensor?

2013-05-12 Oversampling: What Would 56 Megapixels Look Like from a Sony NEX-7 Sensor?

2013-05-10 Iridient Developer Updated to Version 2.1 with Support for Fuji XTrans Sensor

2013-05-08 Nikon D800E vs Canon 5D Mark III: the Nikon D800E Optical Low Pass Blur+Unblur Filter Pack

2013-04-30 Comparing Noise Between Cameras

2013-04-26 Dream Camera: Big Sensor Fixed Lens

2013-04-19 Leica M Typ 240 Moiré

2013-04-15 Leica M Typ 240 / M240 and CMOSIS

2013-04-08 Leica M Typ 240 / M240 Can Have a Dead Pixel Column Too (same as With The M9)

2013-04-03 Nikon Coolpix A Sensor

2013-04-02 Nikon Coolpix A Initial Comments

2013-03-22 How Does the Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar Perform on a 56-Megapixel DSLR?

2013-03-09 What Happens if the Sensor is not Exactly Plane Parallel to the Lens Mount? (UPDATE)

2013-03-07 Oversampling for Image Quality (109 Megapixel Sony RX100 tulips)

2013-03-05 Is there a New Trend in Compact Cameras? (fixed lens, large sensor, Nikon Coolpix A)

2013-03-01 What Happens if the Sensor is not Exactly Plane Parallel to the Lens Mount?

2013-02-28 Small Sensor Cameras Make The Grade

2013-02-23 Are Today’s Lenses Good Enough for a 72 Megapixel DSLR?

2013-02-21 Nikon D7100 — No Anti-Aliasing Filter

2013-02-08 When Will We See Canon Megapixels to Match Nikon?


2012-11-14 Image Quality From Olympus OMD E-M5 (or Sigma DP Merrill, or any small sensor)

2012-11-13 Getting the Best Results From a Digital Sensor — JPEG vs RAW and Exposure and Noise

2012-11-12 Getting the Best Results From a Digital Sensor

2012-10-23 Nikon D600 Sensor Dust

2012-10-21 Olympus SHG 14-35mm f/2 ED — Does It “Cover” more than a Four Thirds/MFT Sensor? (Updated, Camera Obscura)

2012-10-19 Olympus SHG Four Thirds Lenses — Do They “Cover” more than a Four Thirds/MFT Sensor?

2012-10-09 Sigma DP1 Merrill — Really Interesting Sensor, Crashing Sigma Software

2012-09-22 Fujifilm X-Pro1 — Same Artifacts from the Funky Sensor Design

2012-08-19 Sensor Photosite Density on the Sony Cybershot DSC-RX100

2012-06-09 Saving Space by Cropping the D800 / D800E Sensor

2012-05-22 Exploiting the Sensor Resolution: Depth of Field on the Nikon D800E

2012-05-10 Leica M Monochrom — 18-Megapixel Monochrome Sensor

2012-04-24 New NEC SpectraSensor Colorimeter for NEC Displays

2012-04-21 Nikon’s 24MP D3200 — Will the DX Sensor Have a Taste of D800 Quality?

2012-03-13 Fuji X-Pro1 Sensor — Prospects for Leica M, Zeiss ZM Wide-angle Lenses

2012-02-11 80 Megapixels— Similar Lens Demands to Realize Potential of the Sensor

2012-02-09 What Does Depth of Field Mean on a 36 Megapixel Camera?

2012-02-02 Leica M9P Sensor Defect Example

2012-01-12 Fuji X-Pro1 Sensor Design — No Anti-Aliasing Filter for Sharp Images


2011-12-23 RAW Developer 1.9.4 Supports EXR Sensor Modes for Fuji X10

2011-12-19 Nikon 36 Megapixel D800 Without an Anti-Aliasing Filter?

2011-09-02 Fuji X100 — Great Sensor, and Thoughts on the Panasonic GF3 and Olympus E-P3

2011-06-26 Sigma DP2x “14 megapixel” Point and Shoot with Foveon X3 True-Color Sensor


2010-01-21 Nikon D700 “HR” — high resolution mod


2009-08-22 Sigma DP-2 with Foveon X3 sensor review

2009-08-02 Ultra wide angle lenses and sensor/lens-mount alignment

2009-03-15 Mac Pro memory might require thermal sensors

2009-02-13 Cleaning your digital camera sensor


2008-10-18 Monochrome sensors — guest author Pete Myers

2008-07-30 Leaf’s 56 megapixel rotating sensor digital back

2008-06-14 Self-cleaning sensors — not so clean


2007-11-16 DSLR sensor size tyranny

2007-08-10 Nikon’s true-color sensor patent

2007-07-27 Monochrome vs color filter array (Bayer) sensor

2007-03-03 Self-cleaning sensors


2006-01-29 Nikon D2X lens mount and/or sensor misalignment

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