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OWC ThunderBay 4: 20TB RAID-5 for about $1279!
4TB to 40TB, configure single drives or as RAID-5, RAID-0, RAID-10.
Now up to a whopping 40 Terabytes
20TB model as RAID-5 = 15TB usable capacity.

New Coverage of Leica SL, Leica 24-90mm Vario-Elmarit-SL ASPH, Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

All sorts of new stuff; see the reverse chronological index in Guide to Leica.

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A few of the images involved...

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Some deep discount deals

Some items at good discounts:

Or look for more deals... or my wish lists of gear I’d want myself:

Reading this blog via an RSS feed reader? it may damage these links, rendering them inoperable. Please visit this web site directly.

See also: B&H DEAL OF THE DAY Weekly Deals/Specials Find Deals...

Funny, I guess B&H carries all sorts of bags for cameras!

Kelly Moore Austin Bag $50 / 25% off ENDS tonight at 3 PM PST.

 

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Shootout on Leica SL: Leica 24-90/2.8-4 Vario-Elmarit-M ASPH OIS vs Zeiss ZM 35/1.4 Distagon, 'Fresh June Snow on White Mountains'

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

Eye opening, and blinding in the glare of reality, outside the Leica distortion field.

Shootout: Leica 24-90/2.8-4 vs Zeiss ZM 35/1.4 Distagon: Fresh June Snowfall on White Mountains

Includes images up to full 24MP resolution from both lenses, from f/1.4 - f/8 for the ZM 35/1.4 and from f/3.1 - f/8 for the Leica 24-90mm.

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Leica SL: Hot Pixels + Pattern Noise at ISO 100

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

In Guide to Leica I was preparing another aperture series for the Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Distagon, when I was startled to see severe hot pixels (and some pattern noise) at base ISO 100 at only 4/10 second. Yikes!

      ƒ:  1.4,    2,  2.8,   4, 5.6,   8,  11
seconds: 1/30, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 0.4, 0.8, 1.3

Leica SL: Pattern Noise and Hot Pixels at ISO 100

Includes RawDigger analysis and images up to full 24MP resolution, along with two large crops for viewing convenience, at all apertures from f/1.4 to f/11.

I’m not talking about a few hot pixels at 4/10 second, but thousands that dominate the image in all dark areas. The reduced-size image below hides them, but they are prominent at full-res.

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Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: DeChambeau Barn (Leica SL)

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

This flat-field subject is a tough test of any lens.

It is also a moiré inducing target, one reason that I strongly dislike relatively low resolution 24MP full frame sensor cameras, whose resolution limits and Bayer matrix sensor are prone to digital artifacts with high performance lensese.

In Guide to Leica in my review of the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon:

Aperture Series: DeChambeau Weathered Barn (Leica SL)

Includes images up to full 24MP resolution, over the full aperture range from f/1.4 to f/11.

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Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: Miner’s Coveralls + Moiré with Leica SL

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

In Guide to Leica are two pieces, one lens-oriented, the other on the ugly digital artifacts that result from using a relatively low-resolution 24MP sensor without an anti-aliasing filter :

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Miner’s Coveralls (Leica SL)

Leica SL: Color Moiré Example

Includes images up to full 24MP resolution, at f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8.

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Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Relief for Women and Men + 5 More (Leica SL)

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

The overall look and feel of imagery from the ZM 35/1.4 is highly appealing—very sharp with moderate vignetting wide open, ultra low distortion, extremely well controlled aberrations, almost no field curvature and no focus shift.

This medium-range with far background scene looks at overall rendering style, with an eye towards sharpness and control of aberrations in out of focus areas.

In Guide to Leica in my review of the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon:

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Relief for Women and Men (Leica SL)

Includes images up to full 24MP resolution, over the full aperture range from f/1.4 to f/5.6.

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And six more:

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Assay Shack Warm Sunset (Leica SL)

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Old House at Dusk (Leica SL)

Aperture Series: Wyman Canyon Lower Cabin Interior (Leica SL)

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Lincoln Electric Clock Light (Leica SL)

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Museum Outdoors (Leica SL)

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Assay Room (Leica SL)

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Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Mining Store Cabin (Leica SL)

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

The overall look and feel of imagery from the ZM 35/1.4 is highly appealing—very sharp with moderate vignetting wide open, ultra low distortion, extremely well controlled aberrations, almost no field curvature and no focus shift.

This full-range scene looks at overall imaging style and sharpness at medium range.

In Guide to Leica in my review of the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon:

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Mining Store Cabin (Leica SL)

Includes images up to full 24MP resolution, over the full aperture range from f/1.4 to f/8.

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Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Cash Register (Leica SL)

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post). See also my Leica M wish list and Leica SL wish list.

Yesterday I stated that the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon is my preferred lens on Leica M. As it turns out, based on the images I shot during my June trip with the Leica SL, the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon is also my preferred lens on the Leica SL.

In Guide to Leica in my review of the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon:

Aperture Series: Cerro Gordo Cash Register View, Mining Museum (Leica SL)

Includes images up to full 24MP resolution, over the full aperture range from f/1.4 to f/16.

This close-range scene shows the rendering style of the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon, with both foreground and background blur, so the bokeh style to be seen is full range.

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Pentax K1: SuperRes Pixel Shift Mode in the Field: Two Landscape Images

See my Pentax K1 wish list at B&H Photo.

The Pentax K1 SuperRes pixel shift mode has some severe limitations for field use (see the extensive discussion in my review of the Pentax K1), being not only intolerant of subject movement, but also intolerant of changes in lighting.

But I wondered—could I get away with high quality results for sunset/dusk scenes with relatively stable light and reasonabl shutter speeds around 1/5 second?

In my review of the Pentax K1:

Pentax K1 SuperRes Pixel Shift: Two Field Shots at Sunset (White Mountains)

Includes images up to 28 megapixels along with large crops and RawDigger info and ACR conversion settings and commentary.

Still Growing: Ancient Bristlecone Pine Sees its 1,460,000th or so Sunset
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Sunset Looking North, White Mountains
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Pentax K1: File Quality and Noise from ISO 100 to ISO 204800 (Jagged Bristlecone Stump)

See my Pentax K1 wish list at B&H Photo.

File quality of the Pentax K1 is amazing. In this piece, I show the RawDigger histograms for all ISO values, including histograms for dark tones which show the best (smoothest) pixel quality I’ve yet seen from a 35mm full frame camera—even through ISO 800.

In addition to the RawDigger analysis, entire frame images are shown at 58% of actual pixels (12.4 megapixels) as well as 12.4-megapixel actual pixels crops, all from ISO 100 through ISO 204800.

In my review of the Pentax K1:

Pentax K1 ISO Series 100 to 205K, Jagged Bristlecone Stump

The Pentax K1 has a mighty impressive sensor even in its StdRes mode. SuperRes pixel shift mode is even better, but cannot be used when there is any change in lighting intensity or color, as was the case here.

Weathered Ancient Bristlecone Pine Stump
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Camera Storage Cards: 256GB and 512GB Dropping in Price

The price of 256GB and 512GB storage cards is far more attractive than six months ago.

View discounted memory cards.

I like large cards for my field work. See my Mechanics and Organization section in DAP for things like Downloading and Backing Up Images In The Field.

Backup in the field for a laptop? The OWC Mercury Envoy Pro EX 1TB or 480GB.

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH in Silver Anodized Finish

Get Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH in silver or black.

Get the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon in silver or black ($250 rebate at time of post).

It’s only $200 more than the black version (2.5% more at $7995 instead of $7795), so why not?

I like the silver finish a lot, but I’ll stick with the black one I have (even if the huge cost were not a huge issue), since I prefer the Zeiss ZM 35m f/1.4 Distagon which has a much more appealing rendering than the 50/2 APO. Even crazier, the Zeiss ZM 35/1.4 is a huge bargain in the context of M lenses and gives up nothing to any Leica M lens to my eyes. I ordered my very own Zeiss ZM 35/1.4 Distagon in silver finish back in 2014 (see my review of the Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon).

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH in Silver Anodized Finish

An In-Depth Look at Focus Stacking in 'Making Sharp Images'

I’ve added an in-depth look at focus stacking in Making Sharp Images.

The examples include annnotation as to where focused, and sizes up to 28 megapixels, along with discussion. The various tips and overview pages should get you started with focus stacking while sharply accelerating the learning curve.

Focus stacking table of contents

Razor sharp from right under the camera to the far distance, with no stacking artifacts.

Ancient Bristlecones Thousands of Years Old Sculptured by Weathering
Focus-stacked image, 6 frames
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LensRentals.com Discount up to 25% on Camera or Lens Rentals

Use code LR10YEAR at LensRentals.com to save $15 on $100 or more, $50 on $250 or more, $250 on $1000 or more.

LensRentals.com has a wide range of cameras, lenses and other gear for rent, for still photography or video.

Renting is also a good way to try before you buy when unsure of the best lens or camera for your needs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Photoshop World Conference Deals at B&H Photo

Update: some of these deals are over, some are still valid.

See all Photoshop World Conference Specials. Items I noted of interest to me:

See also my wish lists

These are not just lists of stuff, but gear I would choose for myself, the best stuff, or gear I would buy for some of my uses, or items one might not think of.

Reading this blog via an RSS feed reader? it may damage these links, rendering them inoperable. Please visit this web site directly.

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Problem Solver: Eyeshade for Sony A7 Series Cameras

See my Sony mirrorless wish list at B&H Photo.

For over a year I’ve put up with stray light from the side with my Sony A7R II. I’m annoyed at myself for not finding this solution sooner since I should have thought of it.

I saw this eyeshade very recently, and got one—problem solved: no more sunlight or bright light hitting my eye from the side, which happens all the time in the outdoors, particularly at peak shooting times.

At about $17.95 it’s worth every penny. Slides on or off if desired to swap with original.

  • Large Oval Shape for Eye Comfort
  • Seals Out Stray Light
  • Rotates 360º for Left or Right Eye
  • Rotates for Horizontal or Vertical View
  • Soft and Durable Rubber
  • Prevents Scratching of Eyeglasses
  • Fits Sony a7 Series Cameras
Vello ESS-A7 Eyeshade for Sony A7 Series Cameras

Roy P writes:

Interesting… The Vello eyecup you posted has more than a passing resemblance to the Hoodman eyecup. The Hoodman comes in a larger size for people who wear glasses. I got one a couple of months ago, and use it on bright days outdoors. $20.

DIGLLOYD: I hadn’t seen the Hoodman eyecup and I don't know if one is better than the other.

Paul K writes:

I found this eyeshade some months ago and managed to mount my personal prescription of my right eye into it.

I have some astigmatism that cannot be corrected with the camera’s diopter. So I shaped a lens and fitted it into the eyeshade (I’m an optician).

Now I can shoot without glasses and have a very crisp and sharp image of the viewfinder (although only in landscape orientation). If I want to shoot with glasses on, I simply take the eyeshade off.

DIGLLOYD: wow!

Stacking Two Frames for Impossible Depth of Field

See yesterday’s discussion of depth of field.

Here is a 2-frame focus-stacked image with depth of field that is impossible to obtain with a single shot: at f/9 one is presented with two unpalatable options: either the tree is badly blurred with focus in the distance, or the tree is sharp with strongly blurred background. And it is a situation with a “deep 3D” target which does nicely with deep depth of field.

The night was still (minimal wind), so motion was not an issue. Using a 2-frame stack, the image is razor sharp near to far, everywhere and at full 36 megapixel resolution. In the full-res image, one can clearly see a diamond-shaped road sign with a symbol inside it! Now I wish that Nikon or Sony would add Pentax K1 style pixel shift at 50+ megapixels.

The best part? There was no retouching needed. Just press and go—job done with Zerene Stacker PMAX mode. There are no stacking artifacts I could find; the halos in some areas of the tree are something from the ACR conversion algorithm even for a single frame, made a little worse by sharpening—not stacking artifacts.

The Zeiss Otus lenses 'rock' for focus stacking because performance is so high; the stacking software has very high quality pixels to work with, with close to zero aberrations that could cause weird blur issues.

2 frames: 1st frame focused near the tree trunk at center, 2nd frame in far distance.

Lonesome Pine on Pothole Dome, View to Far Peaks
Focus-stacked image from 2 frames
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Depth of field and Sharpness: Conventional Thinking is Unrealistic Going Forward, Focus Stacking is One Solution

Depth of field for an image refers to the near/far range of “acceptably sharp” detail in an image, the idea of “acceptable” being entirely context-dependent: what is “acceptable” for a magazine-size print or web image may look blurry when displayed at large size, such as with a 4K or 8K television, or in conventional parlance, a “large print”.

When choosing a camera and making images, consider that the future is “large”: 4K now, and soon 8K and then presumably 16K displays with unprecedented dynamic range and extreme resolution capabilities (4K is 8.2 megapixels, 8K is 33 megapixels, 16K is 132 megapixels). Already, Netflix 4K streamed video reveals the slightest technical errors in spite of being compressed substantially: errors in focus, one eye sharp and the other blurred, soft eyes but sharp nose or ears, strictly limited depth of field, lens aberrations and not so pleasing bokeh effects.

Acceptably sharp also depends on subject matter: an image may have prominent structural features which may make fine details a secondary concern, or it might contain finely detailed elements, like hair, grass, pine needles, metallic textures and so on. A sense of realism vanishes when detail is lacking—the “transparency” of the image is impaired, even if the by-the-numbers resolution is good by conventional standards. Does the image look like the real thing or does it look like a picture of it? That is why I consider the late iMac 5K display the best display device ever created: it looks more like the real thing than anything else. But much larger screens with more resolution are only a few years off. [See What’s the Best Way to Enjoy Images at their Finest? and iMac 5K for Stunning Black and White Images ].

Traditional depth of field thinking is a concept ill-suited to modern display devices, because those devices are already really big (“big print”) and because they are transmissive devices that do not dither or degrade the pixels as do printed media and projection: every pixel can be rendered to perfection.

Cameras that in 2016 just barely fill the screen on mainstream computers like the Apple iMac 5K will barely fill half the screen within a few years. An Apple iMac 5K has a 5120-pixel-wide display that is dazzling for images whose resolution fills those 14+ million pixels. Similarly the 8+ megapixels of 4K television shows every weakness and error in focusing and depth of field. But 8K televisions and computer displays are not many years off, indeed 8K televisions already exist (8K is 33 megapixels). An iMac 6K or iMac 8K in a larger screen size is a distinct possibility (or some equivalent product or TV).

I consider 16 or 24 megapixel cameras somewhat a waste of my time; it takes the same effort to shoot 16 or 24 or 36 or 42 or 50 megapixels. Why would I waste my time at 16 or 24? For perspective, view circa 2000-2005 digital images of 3 or 4 or 6 megapixels on an iMac 5K at full screen. The 16/20/24 megapixel images of today aren’t going to even fill an 8K display; they will be “blurred up” to fit. They will be satisfactory of course, but not eye popping.

And so, traditional film-based thinking about what is “acceptably sharp” is already obsolete in relation to even current display technologies, let alone future ones. My view therefore is that “acceptable” depth of field is that which approaches the full sensor resolution, thus capturing an image in the most possible detail.

Unconstrained or misplaced depth of field can be a negative

More depth of field willy-nilly is not always better. The zone of sharpness requires careful placement for starters. And sometimes an image is better done tack-sharp in a relatively narrow zone, while still including background and/or foreground blur for separation of the subject from its surroundings.

Yet even where some blur for subjection separation is a goal (a common one), there may be practical constraints on depth of field with traditional approaches, particularly with higher magnification images. Hence new working techniques may be needed, particularly as sensor resolution gains are made. One such technique is focus stacking.

Stopping down versus focus stacking

The traditional approach for more depth of field is to stop down the lens, say to f/8 or f/11 or f/16. But with high resolution digital cameras, even f/11 is often insufficient depth of field, and the image as a whole quickly declines in quality past f/8 due to the dulling effects of diffraction. That figure will drop to f/6.3 or so for higher resolution cameras no later than 2017 (it is already f/5.6 for APS-C).

The traditional “stop down” approach is often sufficient for high sharpness over a desired range. But what about when even f/11 or f/16 won’t suffice and/or when high brilliance is desired (that is to avoid the dulling effects of diffraction)? The answer is focus stacking.

Depth of field as defined above (full sensor resolution) is extremely limited on high performance cameras, even at f/8 or f/11. By shooting multiple images, each at a different focus position, the images can be combined for limitless depth of field: focus stacking.

Focus stacking, handheld at 21mm, f/5.6

Here, I wanted a sharp foreground the pyramidal rock to be sharp, and the background also to be tack sharp. But particular subject had always defeated me on a depth of field basis, even at f/13—there was just no way to make the whole scene sharp. A tilt lens would not help here, since the tilt would cut through the vertical pyramidal rock and it is a key element.

Use of a tripod for focus stacking is all but essential for avoiding stacking issues, but here with the 30+ mph wind throwing me off balance, I could not even frame the subject accurately, let alone use a tripod, which would have vibrated strongly from the wind—handheld was the only option.

I wondered: could I focus stack with just two handheld shots for acceptable results? The composite image had some stacking artifacts, but with a bit of cloning to fix a few defects, this 2-frame stack at f/5.6 (!) delivers depth of field from the nearby foreground to the distant mountains.

Why don’t all cameras offer built-in focus stacking? The camera could do it extremely well (even handheld at reasonably fast shutter speeds), and in raw. A few cameras offer focus bracketing, at least one does JPEG focus stacking, but AFAIK no camera does it fully.

2 frames: first frame focused just in front of pyramidal boulder, 2nd frame where hillside slopes away to distance.

Dana Lake
Focus-stacked image from 2 handheld frames
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Timothy R writes:

I just read your post, it’s great. In this past year I’ve personally done two things; stitched panoramas (using a Really Right Stuff Pano Head), and stacked images; both for the reasons you mention – more pixels and precise control of the zone of exact focus. To my mind there is no other way, on my iMac and without much practice I’m able to create immersive images, perhaps not interesting … but the technique has to be learned and practiced in any case.

For stacking I use Helicon Focus and I have observed that different stacking algorithms produce different results. It’s not so easy to know which is best, however it would not surprise me to find such features in a Sony camera soon. If Sony’s A7 developer’s API would allow control of the focal position (so far it does not) then I would write an app to do the stacking myself, including all necessary calculations and, if possible, the post processing too.

Still, the same limitations as sensor shifting apply, so its limited in its application. However, in camera focus stacking would really speed up certain kinds of photography.

DIGLLOYD: the limitation on motion for focus stacking is different than pixel shift imaging in that motion is often easily dealt with by retouching (right inside Zerene Stacker and/or in Photoshop, basically cloning in one of the frames). As per above, there was a LOT of motion including me moving the camera between frames and a violent wind that was moving the brush and water. Yet the image succeeds.

With pixel shift, “motion” means both subject motion and any change in lighting intensity or color; in either situation the issue becomes an ugly grid artifact at the pixel level, which is much harder to deal with—it requires full raw converter support. Pixel shift would be impossible in the above image, even for a single frame.

Bruce B writes:

Version 4 of the firmware for the Olympus EM-1 includes a focus bracketing mode and a built in focus stacking process. Internal focus stacking is limited to JPEG and has some limitations on number of frames, focus step size, etc. Focus bracketing is far more flexible, working with raw images and allowing a wide range of control over focus step size and number of focus steps.

DIGLLOYD: ironic that auto focus stacking is implemented in a camera whose format in which the feature is least useful (lots of depth of field with Micro Four Thirds). And JPEG is obviously not so desirable. Still, it’s a good idea that can be taken further. But the highest value accrues to the largest format (35mm or medium format), where depth of field is harder to come by.

The ideal camera would offer auto-stepping between two points of focus (distances) that is suitable for the chosen aperture. Then the camera could do all the work of dealing with focus. On the other hand, manual focus lenses are highly desirable for control. A camera ought to offer a “focus stack this and the next or last N images” feature, delivering a raw output file. Nikon has long had a multiple exposure mode that outputs a raw; this would just extend the idea.

Lawrence F writes:

The Phase One XF camera body has a focus stacking feature set in which the front and back focus planes are set and the camera automatically focuses and shoots between those set points. The photographer can determine how many exposures will be taken in that interval.

DIGLLOYD: I wonder if it does the right thing: fixed spacing is not appropriate for medium/far work. Also AF accuracy can cause spacing errors if things up if focused when stopped down, as I found with the Sony A7R II. Though the XF should not have that issue since it is a DSLR.

Christopher P writes:

Am I missing something here?

The most cursory glance at the Worlds’ most effecting and enduring images indicates that sharpness, let alone the ability to fill or challenge an 8K monitor, are secondary to content, form and impact. We have all seen any number of high resolution, well exposed, razor sharp images which, after a brief nod to the technical ability implied, are forgotten and never looked at again.

I own some of the high pixel count cameras and state-of-the-art lenses you espouse but, when I look at my images, taken over many years, my favourites are often those which look tiny on my 4K monitors.

A 5 megapixel camera in the right hands is capable of producing sensational images which make exquisite small prints.

By advocating that 16 and 24 megapixel cameras are a waste of your time are you not decrying the majority of the photographic community? I value the ability and wherewithal to take technically, exemplary photographs should the content demand but, more often than not, that ability is not essential, indeed it may even be deleterious.

DIGLLOYD: the response is a non-sequitur: I like chocolate ice cream, which does not mean I dislike vanilla. I like depth of field sometimes, which does not imply always. Indeed, focus stacking is appropriate for increasing depth of field but only in a narrow zone (via a “short stack” at wide aperture).

Nor is it necessary to conflate pictorial excellence (composition, content and timing and meaning) with sharpness.

More resolution rarely makes a photo worse, so it is indeed a waste of time to shoot a low-res camera that won’t even fill the screen when I can shoot a high-res one that will with no difference in effort, and therefore make an image that has greater transparency and realism. Anyone working with contentional resolution displays is working blindly and won’t be aware of the tremendous difference in visual impact that occurs with some images. That is true not just for sharpness, but for dynamic range and tonality, all parts of a whole. A great photo can be pure crap in a technical sense, but that is a non-sequitur to this whole depth of field discussion. For that matter a great photo is not subject to a vote unless one figures polls as a measure of greatness.

Finally, I have long advocated appropriateness in a wide variety of ways. See Landscape Photography at Wide Apertures and Aperture Series: Pine Creek Thunderstorms not to mention dozens of blog posts on those and many other topics. I am not advocating the most depth of field possible for every image, only those for which it is appropriate.

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