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Sharpness and Zone of Focus

Sharpness loss by focusing or zone of sharp focus..

How To Get Peak Sharpness With Perfect Focus

Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..

Focusing Accuracy (Case Studies)

Focusing accuracy and errors..

How To Banish Blur Whether Handheld or Tripod

Using your camera’s mirror lockup, self timer, and Live View features..

Depth of Field Mitigations

Increasing Depth of Field by means other than stopping down..

Focus Stacking Shooting Tips

Best practices for shooting stacking frames..

Field Curvature

Zone of focus, not plane of focus.

Focus Shift and Spherical Aberration

Elusive sharpness, depending on aperture.

Focus Shift (Case Studies)

Focus shift with a variety of lenses..

Understanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Optical Behavior (Case Studies)

Illuminating examples of lens behavior..

Expose To The Right (ETTR)

Maximizing image quality, dynamic range, minimizing digital noise.

Sigma SD1 Merrill

Sigma/Foveon true-color sensor in a DSLR body..

Nikon D850

The best becomes better..

Nikon D850 Focus Stacking

Unprecedented support for focus stacking in full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D810

Improvements on the workhorse D800E..

Nikon D800E

36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D800E vs D800

D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..

Nikon D800 Monochrome Conversion by MaxMax.com

D800 with the RGB Bayer matrix removed for a true monochrome sensor..

Nikon D4

Nikon’s pro-body high speed low light wonder..

Nikon D5

High speed big brick shooter..

Canon EOS 1D X

18 megapixel big black brick, Canon’s top of the line DSLR..

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

22 megapixel successor to the popular 5D Mark II..

Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.4E ED

Nikon’s finest wide angle lens..

Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 70-200mm f/2.8E FL ED VR

Nikon’s finest 70-200 zoom as of 2017..

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II

Nikon’s bread and butter telephoto zoom.

Sony A900

The 24.6 megapixel Sony A900 digital SLR is compared with Canon’ top-of-the-line 21.1MP EOS 1Ds Mark III. A field report including two comparisons with the Canon 1Ds Mark IIII, example images in color and black and white, and the Zeiss ZA 135mm f/1.8 Sonnar. Anti-Shake (SteadyShot) is assessed, as is noise behavior..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 200mm f/2G ED VR II

Ultra fast 200mm with gorgeous bokeh and high resolving power..

Nikon D3x 24.4-megapixel DSLR review

Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..

Canon 14mm f/2.8L II

In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..

Voigtlander 20mm f/3.5 Color-Skopar

Very compact ultra wide angle..

Voigtlander 90mm f/3.5 APO-Lanthar SL II

Medium telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..

Landscape Photography at Wide Apertures

Escape the banale postcard look by shooting landscapes at f/1.4 or f/0.95..

Pentax smc P-D FA 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1 in a normal lens..

Pentax K-3 II (APS-C)

24-megapixel APS-C DSLR with SuperResolution true-color..

Pentax K-3 (APS-C)

23-megapixel APS-C DSLR with an unusual feature set..

Pentax HD DA Limited 21mm f/3.2 AL

APS-C moderate wide angle lens equivalent to 33mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro

APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..

Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS

Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS .

Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..

Canon 200-400mm f/4L IS

Canon’s versatile super telephoto..

Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art

Fast constant-aperture ultrawide zoom..

Sigma 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

Mid-range optimized groundbreaking f/2 zoom..

Sigma 20mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

The fastest extreme wide angle yet..

Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..

Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast and affordable moderate excellent wide angle..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..

Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s best portrait lens..

Sigma 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for class-leading performance?.

Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..

Sigma Telephoto APO Macro Lenses: 150mm, 180mm

Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..

Schneider PC-TS Super-Angulon 28mm f/4.5 HM Aspheric

Wide angle tilt/shift lens at 28mm..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 EX DG HSM on Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III

The Sigma 50mm f/1.4 is a worthy contender in the crowded 50mm area. See how it performs compared to the Canon EF 50/1.4 and EF 50/1.2L..

Nikon AF-S 24-120mm f/4G VR

Nikon’s latest wide range zoom with vibration reduction and fixed f/4 aperture..

Nikon 35mm f/1.4 AIS

Nikon’s classic-design manual focus moderate wide angle..

Nikon 45mm f/2.8P

Ultra compact pancake lens with nice bokeh.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s latest 50mm lens compared with the Zeiss ZF 50/1.4, Nikon 50/1.4D and Sigma 50/1.4..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s High Performance Moderately-Priced 50mm..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 58mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s High performance normal lens.

Canon 24mm f/1.4L II

State of the art design in a fast ultra wide angle lens..

Nikon AF Micro Nikkor 200mm f/4.0D IF-ED

Nikon’s workhorse 200mm macro lens, and not just sharp at close-ups!.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 20mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8E ED VR

Versatile image-stabilized mid-range zoom..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24mm f/1.8G

Versatile autofocus wide angle..

Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4G ED

State of the art design in a fast 24mm lens. Includes full-resolution images at f/1.4..

Olympus Zuiko Auto-S 50mm f/1.2

An ultra-fast older design still offers appeal on modern digital..

Nikon AF-S 60mm f/2.8G Macro

Comparing the new Nikon 60mm to its predecessors, and the Coastal Optics 60/4 APO..

Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Canon 16-35mm f/2.8L III

Is the 3rd time the charm?.

Canon 16-35mm f/4L IS

Canon’s compact image stabilized wide angle zoom..

Canon 24-70mm f/2.8L II and 24-70mm f/4L IS

Canon’s premium mid-range zooms..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 35mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.8G

Relatively inexpensive alternative to the pro 35/1.4G..

Nikon AF-S 85mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 300mm f/4E PF ED VR

Compact and lightweight travel-friendly telephoto..

Nikon AF-S 200-500mm f/5.6E ED VR

Relatively compact super-telephoto zoom..

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 70-200mm zoom, along with comparisons to other models and the 200mm f/2L IS. Extensive comparisons at multiple focal lengths..

Canon EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 100-400mm zoom.

Canon-Wide Angle Prime Lenses

Comparing the 16-35mm f/2.8L II to most of Canon’s wide angle prime lenses. Optical performance, ergonomics, focus, build quality..

Nikon AF-S 14-24mm f/2.8G ED

Nikon’s ultra wide angle zoom and the Nikon 14mm f/2.8, critical focus shift behavior..

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Samyang 14mm f/2.8

Ultra wide angle lens for Canon and Nikon..

Nikon 24mm Lens Choices

Options for a 24mm lens: Nikon 14-24/2.8G, Nikon 24-70/2.8G, Nikon 24/2 AI-S, Nikon PC-E 24/3.5. Sharpness, distortion, flare, field curvature, shooting impression and ergonomics..

Focus Shift In-Depth

Focus shift assesments of a wide variety of lenses of various brands. Shows a range of apertures for each lens and the mount of focus shift, discusses how to compensate for it..

Canon EOS R

Canon’s first full-frame mirrorless..

Canon RF 35mm f/1.8 Macro STM

All-arounder compact lens with macro capability..

Canon RF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM

Bread and butter all-around zoom..

Nikon Z7

Nikon’s first full-frame mirrorless..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 35mm f/1.8 S

Moderate wide angle expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Sony Alpha A9

Blackout-free 20 fps speed demon..

Sony Alpha A7R II

Attention to details: a big upgrade over the A7R..

Sony Alpha A7R III

Attention to details: a solid upgrade over the A7R II..

Sony Alpha A7R

Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..

Sony Alpha A7 II

Sensor stabilized 24MP full-frame..

Sony FE 28mm f/2

Fast wide angle..

Sony FE 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Compact macro lens focusing to 1:1..

Sony FE 85mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade medium telephoto..

Sony FE 100mm f/2.8 STF GM

Razor sharp medium telephoto with apodization filter..

Sony 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS

Native-mount macro length designed by Zeiss..

Sigma FE 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Outstanding fast wide angle, DSLR optical design..

Sigma 70mm f/2.8 DG Macro Art

Macro lens also excellent for all-around shooting..

Voigtlander FE Heliar-Hyper 10mm f/5.6 Aspherical III

Anything wider would be a fisheye..

Voigtlander FE Super Wide-Heliar 15mm f/4.5 Aspherical III

Ultra wide native mount manual focus lens for Sony mirrorless..

Voigtlander FE Nokton Classic 35mm f/1.4

Fast lens speed with curious rendering..

Voigtlander FE Nokton 40mm f/1.2 Aspherical

Fast lens speed for versatile rendering..

Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 Macro APO-Lanthar Aspherical

Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..

Mitakon Zhongyi Speedmaster 50mm f/0.95

Speed to match the Leica Noctilux..

Meyer-Optik Gorlitz Nocturnus 50mm f/0.95 II

Speed to match the Leica Noctilux-M, based on Mitakon Zonghyi optics..

Rokinon FE 50mm f/1.4 ZA

Fast normal lens with autofocus..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/4 G

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/4 ZA OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact ultra-wide zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless..

Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

Wide mid-range zoom targeted at video shooters..

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS

Premiere telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6 G OSS

Compact long range telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Venus Optics Laowa 12mm f/2.8 Zero-D

Extreme wide angle with 'zero distortion'..

Venus Optics Laowa 15mm f/4 Macro

Extreme wide angle macro lens for Sony mirrorless..

Venus Optics Laowa 105mm f/2 STF

Manual focus apodized lens for ultra smooth focus..

Samyang FE 14mm f/2.8

Ultra wide angle lens adapted from DSLR, native E-mount, all manual..

Ricoh GXR with A12 Mount for Leica M Lenses.

Use Leica M lenses on a digital back designed for them..

Fujifilm Finepix X100

The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.

Nikon Coolpix A

Fixed 28mm lens with APS-C sensor free of anti-aliasing blur with wonderful color..

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot RX1R II

Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..

Olympus M.Zuiko 17mm f/1.8

A fast moderate wide angle..

Olympus M.ZUIKO DIGITAL 60mm f/2.8 ED Macro

Native Micro Four Thirds macro lens..

Olympus Zuiko 75mm f/1.8 ED Telephoto

Beautiful bokeh, long reach fast speed, compact lens..

Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 15mm f/1.7 ASPH Micro 4/3

A weak sibling covers the wide end.

Panasonic Leica DG Elmarit 200mm f/2.8 POWER O.I.S.

High performance super telephoto..

Voigtlander Nokton 42.5mm f/0.95

Ultra fast medium telephoto manual focus lens..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Fujifilm X-Pro1

Interchangeable lenses on a 16MP APS-C sensor.

Fujifilm X-Pro2

Fujifilm's 24MP APS-C offering..

Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS

Wide angle zoom equivalent to 15-36mm.

Fujifilm XF 23mm f/1.4 R

Compact moderate wide angle..

Fujifilm XF 56mm f/1.2 APD

Apodization filter version of the 56/1.2..

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-5N

24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..

Zeiss 24mm f/1.8 for Sony NEX

Moderate wide angle for Sony NEX..

Zeiss Loxia (Overview)

Manual focus lenses for Sony Full-Frame Sony Mirrorless..

Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..

Zeiss Batis (Overview)

Zeiss autofocus lenses Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon

Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Leica X Vario

Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..

Leica X2

Leica’s large-sensor 'affordable' compact camera..

Overview of Sigma Foveon Sensor cameras

Foveon X3 true-color sensor for outstanding resolution..

Adapting Other Lenses to Fujifilm GFX

Adapting lenses delivers degraded results in most cases..

Fujifilm GFX Operational Aspects

Experience, reader insights, etc..

Fujifilm GFX Image Quality

Image quality assessments..

Fujifilm GF 23mm f/4 R WR

Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .

Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 R LM WR

Mid-range zoom lens equivalent to 26-53mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8 R WR

Moderate wide angle equivalent to 37mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 110mm f/2 R WR

Ultra high speed telephoto equivalent to 90mm f/1.6..

Fujifilm GF 120mm f/4 Macro R LM OIS WR

High performance macro photography on medium format, equivalent to 99mm f/3.3..

Hasselblad X1D

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses..

Hasselblad XCD 21mm f/4

18mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 30mm f/3.5

25mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2

Medium format telephoto lens, 74mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 120mm f/3.5

Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..

Pentax 645D 40-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

A price/performance breakthrough?.

Pentax 645 Lenses (645D tests)

A variety of 645 lens tests on the 645D.

Pentax HD 35mm f/3.5 AL [IF]

Moderate wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Leica S2 37.5 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Leica’s medium format entry measure up in ergonomics, image quality, etc?.

Leica S Examples

Examples and comparison from the various lenses.

Leica S Typ 006

The last CCD-sensor Leica S model..

Leica 24mm f/3.5 Super-Elmar-S ASPH

Extreme wide angle with ultra high performance..

Leica 45mm f/2.8 Elmarit-S ASPH

Moderate wide angle with low distortion..

Leica 100mm f/2 Summicron-S ASPH

The fastest S lens..

Image Rendition

Visible spectrum, cameras, color space, infrared vs. color & examples..

Shooting Considerations

All about shooting in infrared..

Image Quality Issues

Unique challenges of digital infrared..

Canon Lenses

How Canon lenses perform for infrared use..

Nikon Lenses

How Nikon-compatible lenses perform for infrared use..

Wrap-up and Summary

Conclusions and where to find products and additional information..

Milvus 25mm f/1.4

Highest performing 25mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 135mm f/2

On Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..

Introduction

Start here to best utilize this guide..

Optical Performance

Sharpness and rendering..

15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..

18mm f/3.5 Distagon

A brilliant, but also colorful character..

21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .

25mm f/2 Distagon

Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..

25mm f/2.8 Distagon

A gem with unusual close-focus..

28mm f/2 Distagon

An artist’s drawing tool..

35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Strokes of a master..

35mm f/2 Distagon

Balance and poise..

50/1.4 Planar vs 50/2 Makro-Planar

Comparing the two 50mm options near and far, more comparisons coming..

Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Fast high performance APO wide angle..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and beauty..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar

Ultra high performance apochromatic medium telephoto, overview and technical..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..

85mm f/1.4 Planar

True-to-life imagery..

100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..

135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..

Conclusions

Summary and wrap-up..

Zeiss LensSpire Articles

Articles written for Lenspire.ZEISS.com..

Binoculars

What to look for in a binocular, plus reviews..

Focus

Focus accuracy and focus shift..

Misc Reviews

Miscellaneous reviews..

Ask Lloyd Chambers

Questions and answers on photography and computers and more..

Overview of Zeiss Touit Lenses

High performance prime lenses for Sony NEX and Fujifilm X..

Viewfinder and LCD Viewing Aids

Accurate focus and ease for your eyes..

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon.

Hartblei 40/80/120mm SuperRotators

Medium format Zeiss glass in Hartblei precision tilt/shift lens barrels!.

Nikon lenses

Overview and assessments of Nikon lenses.

Lenses for Leica M8, Leica M9, M*

Lenses for Leica M cameras, especially the M9.

Infrared

Beyond deep red, seeing the invisible..

Infrared Cameras Compared

Infrared Cameras Compared: Fuji S3 Pro UVIR, Nikon D70-IR, Canon EOS 5D-IR ..

Nikon D200 vs D2x

Vintage 2006 comparative review of Nikon D200 vs Nikon D2x..

Leica M10

Leica M mount in slim body with SL-type sensor..

Leica M Typ 240 Usability Issues

Specific issues affecting usability..

Leica M Typ 240 In Use

Overall design and behavior..

Leica SL Typ 601

24-megapixel interchangeable lenses, high-res EVF..

Leica 24-90mm f/2.8-4 Vario-Elmarit-SL ASPH OIS

All-arounder zoom with dubious optical compromises..

Leica Q (Typ 116)

24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..

M9: User’s Guide and Review

High resolution digital rangefinder.

M9 Rear LCD, Image Review

Modern digital features lacking with the M9..

Lens Quality control

How good is Leica quality control?.

Considerations in choosing a lens.

Focal lengths, color, weight and travel considerations. [relevant, but dated/old material].

Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..

Leica 18mm f/3.8 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s widest prime lens..

Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fastest and widest lens..

Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 21mm..

Leica 24mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast wide angle..

Leica 24mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH

A discontinued but excellent 24mm..

Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (2016)

Tweaked 2016 redesign..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..

Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH (2010 FLE)

Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..

Leica 35mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s f/2 35mm for the M..

Leica 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH

World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..

Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s superlative normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

The world’s best 50mm lens is outstanding, but with some limits..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO Flare

Ghosting and veiling and ring flare pre/post production fix..

Leica 50mm f/2 Summicron-M

Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..

Leica 75mm f/1.25 Noctilux-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra high grade and ultra fast modern short telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M

Leica’s retro telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2.4 (2.5) Summarit-M

Leica’s compact 90mm for the M..

Shooting Leica R Lenses on Leica M

General discussion of R lenses on M..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Leica 100mm f/2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R

Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..

Leica 180mm f/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R

World’s best mid-range telephoto lens..

Leica 280mm f/4 APO-Telyt-R

Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..

Zeiss ZM 15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Notes and examples..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/2 Biogon

All around razor sharp performer..

Zeiss ZM 85mm f/2 Sonnar

Ultra high performance (discontinued).

Voigtlander Nokton 35mm f/1.2 II ASPH

Fasted 35mm lens for Leica M, great ergonomics..

Voigtlander M 50mm f/1.1

A slightly slower, but smaller and lighter alternative to the Noctilux, at 1/10 the price..

ALLVIEW Cameras

ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Terrific backup bodies or even primary body for M-mount lenses..


Blog posts, reverse chronological

2018

2018-10-14 Must Read: Nikon Z7 Aperture/Lens Diaphragm Behavior While Viewing/Focusing vs Focus Shift in Lenses

2018-10-10 Nikon Z7 Autofocus Accuracy: Pinpoint AF vs Magnified Live View Reference Frame

2018-10-09 Nikon Z7: Image Sharpness vs Zone of Focus, Autofocus Error and Mitigation

2018-10-03 Reader Comments: Nikon Z7 Focusing and IBIS vs Sony Mirrorless

2018-09-01 Reader Comment: Nikon FTZ Lens Adapter vs 3rd Party Lenses — Autofocus Might Not Work

2018-08-31 Zeiss Lenspire Articles—Read all 17

2018-08-25 Nikon Z7: Pinpoint AF

2018-07-31 Reader Question: Focus Shift with Nikon Mirrorless

2018-07-11 Reader Comment: Sony Mirrorless Focusing in Low Light

2018-06-14 Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M: Focusing Challenges, with examples

2018-05-25 Leica 75mm f/1.25 Noctilux-M ASPH

2018-02-14 New Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

2018-01-30 Fujifilm GFX Does not Always Focus at Full Aperture, Could it Be Compensation for Focus Shift?

2017

2017-12-18 Reader Comments: Sony A7R III, Nikon D850, EVF, Focusing, Landscape

2017-12-08 Reader Comment: Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Skewed Lenses

2017-12-04 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Getting started with Focus Stacking – How to achieve more detailed images”

2017-11-13 Nikon D850: Flange Focal Distance Problem Means that my Zeiss Milvus 18/2.8 reaches End of Its Focusing Range at around 28°F and is Hosed when it goes colder.

2017-11-08 Reader Comment: Zeiss Milvus 25mm f/1.4 vs Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4 (manual focus vs autofocus)

2017-10-28 Critical Tip on Focus Stacking Focusing, Particularly with Nikon D850 Autofocus

2017-10-24 Nikon D850: 'Focus Shift Shooting' Feature is a Reason by Itself to buy the Nikon D850 — Saves Time, Guarantees Peak Quality

2017-10-17 Nikon D850 Experience Report: AF Fine Tune, Focusing Precision, Accuracy with the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G + Focus Shift Behavior

2017-10-14 Nikon D850 Experience Report: Adjusting Autofocus Accuracy with the Nikon 105mm f/1.4E

2017-10-01 Nikon D850: the Focusing Distance Issues Stem from a Sensor that is not Parallel to the Lens Mount (Nikon quality control issue)

2017-09-29 Nikon D850: Apparent Build Tolerance Error in Flange Focal Distance vs Optical Viewfinder, Causes Major Focus Error with Manual Focus Lenses and Focus Confirmation

2017-09-19 Zeiss Milvus 35mm f/1.4, Now Have my Own ZF.2 Sample

2017-08-29 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Micro Contrast and the Zeiss 'Pop'”

2017-08-27 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Zoom or Prime Lens? Normal Lenses”

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Focusing and Metering

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Metering and Autofocus

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Pinpoint AF Mode, Focus Peaking, Electronic Rangefinder

2017-08-26 Reader Question: Best Autofocus Lenses for Nikon D850

2017-08-23 Nikon Announces the D850, Commentary + Reader Comments

2017-08-12 Fujifilm GFX Does not Always Focus at Full Aperture

2017-08-10 Fujifilm GFX 50s Firmware Update Might Degrade Focusing by Stopping Down?

2017-08-08 Fujifilm Issues a Firmware Update Claiming Fixes for Two Focusing Bugs, AKA “phenomenon”

2017-06-21 REVIEWED: New Zeiss Milvus 35mm f/1.4

2017-06-20 Leica M10 Coming This Week

2017-06-02 Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.4E ED

2017-05-22 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Zoom or Prime Lens? A series by Lloyd Chambers”

2017-05-19 Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Aperture Series with GF 120/4: View to Mt Whitney From Alabama Hills

2017-05-16 Nikon Appears to be Doing Focus Shift Compensation, at Least with the Nikon D810 and 70-200/2.8E

2017-05-07 Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art: How Good is Autofocus Accuracy on Nikon D810

2017-04-19 Sony’s New α9 Camera Appears to Target the High-End Sport Shooter Market

2017-04-14 Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Aperture Series with 63/2.8: View to Mt Whitney From Alabama Hills

2017-04-11 Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Aperture Series: Mining Town Church

2017-04-02 Hasselblad X1D: Autofocus Errors with Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2 Update: Confirmed, Hasselblad Working On It

2017-03-26 Hasselblad X1D: Unacceptable Autofocus Errors with Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2 (Update)

2017-03-25 Hasselblad X1D: Unacceptable Autofocus Errors with Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2

2017-02-16 New Article on Zeiss Lenspire Site: “Zoom or Prime Lens? A series by Lloyd Chambers”

2017-01-18 Leica M10: Inertial Design

2016

2016-11-29 My Articles on the Zeiss Lenspire Site

2016-10-18 Canon 16-35mm f/2.8L III

2016-10-15 Reader Question: Focusing with Sony Mirrorless

2016-10-15 Why Lens Performance Matters for Focus Stacking

2016-09-19 Olympus 25mm f/1.2 PRO

2016-09-19 Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II: Sport Shooter’s Dream?

2016-09-19 Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art in Nikon, Canon, Sigma SA Mount

2016-09-19 Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art in Nikon, Canon, Sigma SA Mount

2016-09-15 Zeiss Announces Loxia 85mm f/2.4 for Sony Mirrorless

2016-09-08 Zeiss Announces 3 Milvus Lenses for Nikon and Canon DSLRs

2016-09-01 Sony FE 50mm f/2.8 Macro

2016-08-04 My Articles on the Zeiss Lenspire Site

2016-07-25 Leica SL Focusing Errors

2016-05-31 My Articles on the Zeiss Lenspire Site

2016-05-22 Bellows Systems for Nikon, Canon, Leica, Sony: Why Consider Them?

2016-05-13 Voigtlander 10mm f/5.6 for Sony E: Maxed-Out Field of View, Rectilinear Design

2016-05-10 Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

2016-05-08 Sony 85mm f/1.4 Scratchy/Noisy Focusing: I Heard None with my Sample

2016-05-05 Shipping: Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-56 G OSS

2016-04-24 Nikon D5 + AF-S 85/1.4G Autofocus at Moderate Outdoor Distance

2016-04-24 Sony A7R II + Sony 85mm f/1.4 GM Autofocus at Moderate Outdoor Distance

2016-04-20 Nikon D5 Autofocus on Lens Align Target at f/1.4 and f/4

2016-04-19 Sony A7R II + Sony G Master Lenses: Major Focusing Bug?

2016-04-18 Sony A7R II: Configuring Autofocus + Eye AF

2016-04-09 Sony G Master 85mm f/1.4 Scratchy/Noisy Focus with Internal Wear

2016-04-05 Panasonic Lumix DMC-GX85 Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds Powerhouse

2016-03-31 Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-56 G OSS

2016-02-03 Sony A6300, and the Fujifilm X-Pro2

2016-02-01 Canon EOS-1D X Mark II

2016-01-08 Leica SL: Focus Point Bug

2016-01-05 Nikon D5 and Nikon D500 Announced: 4K Video, Advanced Autofocus

2015

2015-12-09 Sony RX1R II Autofocus: Ruined the Shoot

2015-11-29 Back Home... On Shooting in Difficult Conditions

2015-10-22 The Irrational Aim of f/1.4 Lenses

2015-10-14 Zeiss Announces the new Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

2015-09-18 Hartblei 40mm, 80mm, 120mm SuperRotators

2015-09-15 Reader Comment: Weather Sealing on Zeiss Milvus vs Zeiss Otus

2015-08-26 Announced: Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

2015-07-28 Leica S Typ 006: Autofocus Errors

2015-07-11 Leica Q: Autofocus Fails Permanently (well, actually a weird cross-coupling of AF to info display)

2015-06-18 Sigma Announces World’s First Full-Frame f/2 Zoom for Canon, Nikon, Sigma Mounts: 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

2015-06-10 Announced: Sony RX10 Mark II, Sony RX100 Mark IV

2015-05-07 Leica 24-Megapixel Leica M Monochrom Typ 246 Starts Shipping

2015-04-22 Zeiss Announces 'Batis' line: Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon and Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

2015-04-18 Don’t Confuse Focusing Distance with Reproduction Ratio aka Magnification

2015-04-04 Tamron SP 15-30mm f/2.8 Di VC USD: Focusing Problems and Lens Skew

2014

2014-11-09 Zeiss Loxia Ergonomics and Focusing

2014-09-02 Zeiss Loxia: Manual Focus All Metal Build Lenses for Mirrorless Full Frame

2014-08-26 Nikon D810: Recommended Picture Control Settings for Magnified Live View Focusing

2014-07-22 Reader Comments: Lenses for Sports Photography

2014-07-03 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM A: Best Autofocus Lens, In Stock for Canon

2014-06-07 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Discussing Optical and Autofocus Expectations, LOCA

2014-05-19 Tilt/Shift Lenses: Focusing for Optimal Tilt Placement + Focus Peaking Assist

2014-05-13 Canon Announces 16-35mm f/4L IS

2014-04-18 Consistent Focusing Accuracy Requires a High-Resolution EVF: Leica M vs Sony

2014-04-14 Pentax 645Z 51-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR, 13 Pentax Lenses Now Avail in USA

2014-04-10 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-03-03 Autofocus Done the Right Way

2014-01-22 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-01-06 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-01-05 Sigma SD1 Merrill: Autofocus Errors

2013

2013-10-27 Reader Comment: Sony RX1R Focusing at Shooting Aperture

2013-10-25 Sigma 24-105mm f/4 DG HSM OIS zoom for Nikon, Canon, Sony, Sigma DSLRs

2013-10-10 DSLRs Still Have no EVF Option

2013-10-07 Zeiss Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon: Sets a New Metric for Lens Performance to Rival the Best of Medium Format

2013-10-03 Canon 200-400mm

2013-09-15 Fujifilm XF 23mm f/1.4 R

2013-09-13 What Every Leica X Vario User Should Know About Autofocus and Manual Focus

2013-08-01 Field Curvature of the Zeiss 15mm f/2.8 Distagon with Focus Bracketing

2013-07-31 Is the Full Frame DSLR the New Medium Format? What do DSLRs Lack?

2013-07-19 Reader Comment on Ricoh GR: Leaf Shutter In Lens and ND Filter + Vision & Autofocus

2013-07-19 Reader Comment on Ricoh GR: Leaf Shutter In Lens and ND Filter + Vision & Autofocus

2013-07-12 Focus Bracketing for Peak Sharpness with a 15mm Lens

2013-05-20 Autofocus with Sony NEX-7

2013-05-10 Sony NEX-7 Autofocus Insanity

2013-05-05 Zeiss 50mm f/2 Makro-Planar: Future Potential on ~56 Megapixel DSLR

2013-05-04 Zeiss Touit Autofocus Lenses for Sony NEX or Fuji X Now Available for Pre-Order at B&H

2013-05-01 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon — Autofocus Ultra Wide Angle for Sony NEX or Fuji X

2013-05-01 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar — Autofocus Normal Lens for Sony NEX or Fuji X

2013-04-28 EVF or LCD Zoomed-In Focusing Implementations

2013-04-27 Optical and Electronic Viewfinders: EVF + Optical + LCD = Synergy

2013-04-24 Reader Comment: Autofocus Accuracy

2013-03-31 Sigma 180mm f/2.8 APO-Macro DG HSM: Focusing and Image Stabilization

2013-03-17 Sigma 150mm and 180mm f/2.8 APO-Macro DG HSM

2013-03-06 Why an Electronic Viewfinder (EVF) is Not Optional, and Not Sufficient Either

2013-02-17 Focus Accuracy: Focusing Screens for f/1.4 Lenses in Canon, Nikon

2013-02-17 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Autofocus Portraits After Fine Focus Adjust

2013-02-10 Autofocus Accuracy: Sigma 35mm f/1.4 and Nikon AF-S 35/1.4G using Lens Align and Fine Focus Adjust

2013-02-10 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Autofocus Portraits

2013-01-22 Olympus Zuiko 17mm f/1.8 on E-M5: Stepped vs Continuous Focusing

2013-01-13 Canon EF 40mm f/2.8 STM: Focus Bracketing Study (applicable to ANY brand camera or lens)

2012

2012-12-01 Setting Low Contrast for RAW Histogram vs Live View Focusing

2012-11-16 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM for Nikon, Canon, etc

2012-11-10 Focusing the Olympus 75mm f/1.8 ED — How Much Visual Difference Does 20mm difference at 2 Meters Make?

2012-10-29 Reader Question: Leica M Lenses/Focusing and Zeiss ZM 35/2 Biogon

2012-10-22 Olympus M. Zuiko 60mm f/2.8 ED Macro (Micro Four Thirds)

2012-10-15 Sigma DP1 Merrill — Autofocus Accuracy

2012-09-17 24-Megapixel CMOS Leica M (Typ 240)

2012-09-14 Shitty Products

2012-09-02 Reader Comment: Autofocus Accuracy

2012-08-11 Nikon D800 / D800E autofocus Precision

2012-08-03 Autofocus Accuracy: Canon 1D X + EF 85mm f/1.2L II

2012-07-19 Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Distagon: Focusing Manually By Eye

2012-07-09 Errors with Nikon Contrast-Detect Autofocus

2012-06-08 Autofocus Accuracy of Nikon D800E + Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.8G

2012-06-02 Reader Comments: Nikon D800 Autofocus, Pentaprism Blur

2012-05-10 Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

2012-04-25 Nikon D800 / D800E Focusing Aid (Eye)

2012-04-18 Nikon D800: AF-S Autofocus with Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8G VR II

2012-04-14 Fuji X-Pro1+ 35/1.4 Examples

2012-04-14 Nikon D800 Focusing Screens: BrightScreen and KatzEye

2012-04-12 Nikon D800 AF-S Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 60mm f/2.8G

2012-04-12 Nikon D800 AF-S Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 85mm f/1.4G

2012-04-11 Canon 5D Mark III Autofocus With 85mm f/1.2L II (Ad-Hoc)

2012-04-11 Nikon D800 AF-S Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 85mm f/1.4G

2012-04-11 Nikon D800 Autofocus Accuracy: 85/1.8G + 85/1.4G + Mosaic Target

2012-04-10 Nikon D800 Autofocus Accuracy

2012-04-08 Nikon D800 Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 85mm f/1.8G

2012-04-08 Reader Comments on Nikon D800 Color Gamut, Focus Accuracy, Live View

2012-03-29 Nikon D800 Focusing Screens

2012-03-27 Canon 5D Mark III Examples, Focusing, Noise

2012-03-25 Canon 5D Mark III First Impressions + Reader Comments

2012-03-10 Which 28mm Leica M Lens is Best? 28/2.8 Elmarit or 28/2 Summicron?

2012-03-08 Thoughts on Canon EOS 5D Mark III, 22.3 Megapixels

2012-02-25 Reader Asks: Nikon 35mm f/1.4G Focusing Issues Resolved?

2012-02-07 Nikon D800 / D800E — Lens Requirements for 36 Megapixels

2011

2011-12-21 LCDVF Digital SLR Viewfinder (for Live View focusing, video, viewing LCD in bright light, presbyopia)

2011-11-21 Supposing a 36 Megapixel Nikon DSLR Arrives... What About Lenses and Technique?

2011-09-17 Fuji X100 Focusing Note

2011-09-17 Leica M Usability and Versatility: Reader Experience

2011-08-20 Reader Comments on Focusing, Live View, Really Right Stuff Tripod

2011-08-18 Reader Feedback on Making Sharp Images — Live View

2011-08-17 Product Photography: Autofocus Helps

2011-07-16 Autofocus Assist (Electronic Rangefinder) Accuracy

2011-06-27 Leica M9: Which Viewfinder Magnifier To Aid Focusing?

2011-06-26 Which Macro Lens for 1:1 or Better?

2011-06-21 Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

2011-06-10 Open Letter to Leica — 10 Ways To Improve the M9 Rangefinder

2011-04-25 Autofocus Doesn’t Cut It

2011-04-24 Nikon AF-S 60mm f/2.8G Macro Lens

2011-03-14 Autofocus Consistency With Canon and Nikon 35mm f/1.4 Lenses

2011-03-02 Accuracy of Rangefinder Focusing With Leica M and Zeiss ZM Lenses on Leica M9

2011-03-02 Focusing the Leica M9 with the Zeiss 3X loupe — Fantastic

2011-01-21 Focusing the Pentax 645D with the Zeiss 3X loupe

2011-01-12 Nikon 35mm f/1.4G focusing update

2011-01-05 Focusing the Pentax 645D with camera focus assist

2010

2010-12-29 Live View vs Autofocus with Nikon 35mm f/1.4G

2010-12-29 Update on Nikon 35mm f/1.4G and Nikon D3x autofocus

2010-12-26 Nikon 35mm f/1.4G focus problems confirmed by other users

2010-12-21 Leica S2 focusing fact and fiction

2010-11-23 Reader report on manual focus accuracy, installing shims on Nikon D700

2010-11-07 Making Sharp Images updated with autofocus error study

2010-11-03 Leica S2 new examples and autofocus accuracy in the field

2010-07-12 Correspondence with Erwin Puts on Leica M9 focusing

2010-05-10 Nikon 24mm f/1.4G autofocus study published!

2010-05-09 Nikon 24mm f/1.4G autofocus survey results

2010-05-08 Nikon 24mm f/1.4G autofocus hugely erratic

2009

2009-12-28 Zeiss ZF.2 lenses — focusing feel

2009-11-01 Carl Zeiss announces ZE 35mm f/2 Distagon for Canon EOS

2009-10-26 Focusing screens for your DSLR

2009-06-13 Canon 5D Mark II focusing

2008

2008-12-16 Zeiss ZE 50mm f/1.4 Planar for Canon EOS

2008-08-14 Focusing screens for the Nikon D3

2008-07-09 Nikon D3 focusing mystery solved!

2008-05-12 Followup on Nikon D3 focusing

2008-03-25 Star focusing

2007

2007-08-28 Focusing screens for Canon EOS

2007-07-03 Focusing on infinity / shooting stars

2006

2006-08-27 Autofocus accuracy with the Canon EOS 1Ds Mark II and 85mm/f1.2L II USM

2006-07-31 Double image in out-of-focus background (Canon EF 85mm/f1.2L II USM)

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