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Sharpness and Zone of Focus

Sharpness loss by focusing or zone of sharp focus..

Expose To The Right (ETTR)

Maximizing image quality, dynamic range, minimizing digital noise. .

How To Get Peak Sharpness With Perfect Focus

Focusing is more complicated than it first appears..

Focusing Accuracy (Case Studies)

Focusing accuracy and errors..

How To Banish Blur Whether Handheld or Tripod

Using your camera’s mirror lockup, self timer, and Live View features..

Depth of Field Mitigations

Increasing Depth of Field by means other than stopping down..

Focus Stacking Overview

Bypass the limits on depth of field and diffraction..

Focus Stacking Shooting Tips

Best practices for shooting stacking frames..

Field Curvature

Zone of focus, not plane of focus.

Focus Shift and Spherical Aberration

Elusive sharpness, depending on aperture.

Focus Shift (Case Studies)

Focus shift with a variety of lenses..

Understanding Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

Understanding resolution and contrast graphs..

Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration

Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (SLOCA)..

How to Test A Lens

How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance..

Optical Behavior (Case Studies)

Illuminating examples of lens behavior..

Panasonic S1R

High-resolution L-mount full-frame from Panasonic..

Panasonic Lumix S 20-60mm f/3.5-5.6

Compact normal lens for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S PRO 24-70mm f/2.8

Compact ultra-wide zoom lens for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S 24-105mm f/4 Macro OIS

All-arounder entry-level mid-range zoom for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S PRO 50mm f/1.4

Premium fast normal lens for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S 50mm f/1.8

Compact normal lens for L-Mount..

Panasonic Lumix S PRO 70-200mm f/4 OIS

Image stabilized classic 70-200mm for L-Mount..

Leica SL2

47 megapixel with Multi-Shot Hi-Res mode..

Leica SL

24-Megapixel vs mirrorless..

Leica 28mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short wide angle lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-SL ASPH

Fast apochromatic prime lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short normal lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short telephoto lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-SL ASPH

Fast short telephoto lens for L-Mount cameras..

Leica 16-35mm f/3.5-4.5 Super-Vario-Elmar-SL ASPH

Ultra wide angle premium zoom lens relying on distortion correction..

Leica 24-90mm f/2.8-4 Vario-Elmarit-SL ASPH OIS

All-arounder zoom with dubious optical compromises..

Sigma SD1 Merrill

Sigma/Foveon true-color sensor in a DSLR body..

Nikon D850

The best becomes better..

Nikon D850 Focus Stacking

Unprecedented support for focus stacking in full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D810

Improvements on the workhorse D800E..

Nikon D800E

36 megapixels in a compact full-frame DSLR..

Nikon D800E vs D800

D800E supplement and comparisons with Nikon D800..

Nikon D4

Nikon’s pro-body high speed low light wonder..

Nikon D5

High speed big brick shooter..

Canon EOS 1D X

18 megapixel big black brick, Canon’s top of the line DSLR..

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

22 megapixel successor to the popular 5D Mark II..

Canon EOS 5DS / 5DS R

50 megapixel successor to the 22 megapixel Canon 5D Mark III..

Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.4E ED

Nikon’s finest wide angle lens..

Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 70-200mm f/2.8E FL ED VR

Nikon’s finest 70-200 zoom as of 2017..

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/4 ED VR and 70-200mm f/2.8 ED VR II

Which speed zoom for the Nikon D800/D800E?.

Nikon AF-S 70-200mm f/2.8G ED VR II

Nikon’s bread and butter telephoto zoom.

Sony A900

The 24.6 megapixel Sony A900 digital SLR is compared with Canon’ top-of-the-line 21.1MP EOS 1Ds Mark III. A field report including two comparisons with the Canon 1Ds Mark IIII, example images in color and black and white, and the Zeiss ZA 135mm f/1.8 Sonnar. Anti-Shake (SteadyShot) is assessed, as is noise behavior..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 200mm f/2G ED VR II

Ultra fast 200mm with gorgeous bokeh and high resolving power..

Nikon D3x 24.4-megapixel DSLR review

Includes: D3x resolution comparisons (res chart) with Nikon D3, Canon EOS 1Ds Mark III, resolution comparison on outdoor shot with Nikon D3, large examples, large wildlife examples, Nikon 200mm f/2 VR on D3x, long exposure noise ISO series, D3x sensitivity on diffraction, D3x dynamic range at ISO 100 vs ISO 50, D3x vs D3 color and noise..

Canon 14mm f/2.8L II

In-depth review of the Canon EF 14mm f/2.8L II including flare, distortion, field curvature, resolution charts, numerous field examples and comparison to the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G. The Canon EF 14/2.8L II is a superb lens, but with some peculiarities which may enhance or degrade its appeal for different uses. The review is as much a “user guide” as a review; even if you use this lens it’s well worth your time to read this review..

Voigtlander 20mm f/3.5 Color-Skopar

Very compact ultra wide angle..

Voigtlander 90mm f/3.5 APO-Lanthar SL II

Medium telephoto with world-class chromatic correction..

Canon TS-E 45mm f/2.8

Normal lens with tilt/shift.

28mm Shift Lenses for Nikon

[Archive] In-depth review on the Nikon D2x of the Nikon 28mm f/3.5 PC-Nikkor, Nikon 28mm f/4 PC-Nikkor and the Schneider 28mm f/2.8 PC-Super-Angulon. Flare, distortion, color fringing, color rendition, sharpness, ergonomics, aligmnent, sample variation..

Landscape Photography at Wide Apertures

Escape the banale postcard look by shooting landscapes at f/1.4 or f/0.95..

Pentax HD FA 15-30mm f/2.8 ED SDM WR

Full frame ultra wide angle zoom..

Pentax smc PENTAX-FA 77mm f/1.8

Full frame medium telephoto..

Pentax smc P-D FA 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Macro lens focusing to life size 1:1 in a normal lens..

Pentax K-3 II (APS-C)

24-megapixel APS-C DSLR with SuperResolution true-color..

Pentax K-3 (APS-C)

23-megapixel APS-C DSLR with an unusual feature set..

Pentax HD DA Limited 15mm f/4 ED

APS-C wide angle lens equivalent to 22mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 21mm f/3.2 AL

APS-C moderate wide angle lens equivalent to 33mm on full-frame..

Pentax HD DA Limited 35mm f/2.8 Macro

APS-C normal lens equivalent to 53mm on full-frame..

Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS

Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS .

Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

Canon’s updated fast 35mm prime, evaluated on Canon 5DS R..

Canon 200-400mm f/4L IS

Canon’s versatile super telephoto..

Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art

Fast constant-aperture ultrawide zoom..

Sigma 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

Mid-range optimized groundbreaking f/2 zoom..

Sigma 20mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

The fastest extreme wide angle yet..

Sigma 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance wide angle..

Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast and affordable moderate excellent wide angle..

Sigma 40mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for outstanding performance..

Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s fast high performance normal lens..

Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Sigma’s best portrait lens..

Sigma 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Extraordinary optical efforts for class-leading performance?.

Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Fastest 135mm lens yet, with ultra high performance..

Sigma Telephoto APO Macro Lenses: 150mm, 180mm

Sigma’s fast telephoto APO macro lenses..

Schneider PC-TS Super-Angulon 28mm f/4.5 HM Aspheric

Wide angle tilt/shift lens at 28mm..

Nikon AF-S 24-120mm f/4G VR

Nikon’s latest wide range zoom with vibration reduction and fixed f/4 aperture..

Nikon 35mm f/1.4 AIS

Nikon’s classic-design manual focus moderate wide angle..

Nikon 45mm f/2.8P

Ultra compact pancake lens with nice bokeh.

Nikon 50mm f/1.2 AIS

Nikon’s classic high speed normal lens.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s latest 50mm lens compared with the Zeiss ZF 50/1.4, Nikon 50/1.4D and Sigma 50/1.4..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s High Performance Moderately-Priced 50mm..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 58mm f/1.4G

Nikon’s High performance normal lens.

Nikon AF Micro Nikkor 200mm f/4.0D IF-ED

Nikon’s workhorse 200mm macro lens, and not just sharp at close-ups!.

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 20mm f/1.8G

Nikon’s fast ultra wide angle..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8E ED VR

Versatile image-stabilized mid-range zoom..

Nikon AF-S Nikkor 24mm f/1.8G

Versatile autofocus wide angle..

Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4G ED

State of the art design in a fast 24mm lens. Includes full-resolution images at f/1.4..

Olympus Zuiko Auto-S 50mm f/1.2

An ultra-fast older design still offers appeal on modern digital..

Nikon AF-S 60mm f/2.8G Macro

Comparing the new Nikon 60mm to its predecessors, and the Coastal Optics 60/4 APO..

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A superlative multi-spectral lens with perfect color correction..

Canon EF 11-24mm f/4L USM

Extreme wide angle zoom..

Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L III

Is the 3rd time the charm?.

Canon EF 16-35mm f/4L IS

Canon’s compact image stabilized wide angle zoom..

Canon 24-70mm f/2.8L II and 24-70mm f/4L IS

Canon’s premium mid-range zooms..

Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.8G

A fast moderate wide angle lens with some practical difficulties..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 35mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.8G

Relatively inexpensive alternative to the pro 35/1.4G..

Nikon AF-S 85mm f/1.4G

State of the art design in a fast 85mm lens..

Nikon AF-S 105mm f/1.4E ED

Nikon’s best-ever f/1.4 lens?.

Nikon AF-S 300mm f/4E PF ED VR

Compact and lightweight travel-friendly telephoto..

Nikon AF-S 200-500mm f/5.6E ED VR

Relatively compact super-telephoto zoom..

Canon 200mm f/2L IS USM

A review of Canon’s 200mm f/2L mini super telephoto. Not just for sports, it makes a great landscape lens..

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 70-200mm zoom, along with comparisons to other models and the 200mm f/2L IS. Extensive comparisons at multiple focal lengths..

Canon EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS II

A review of Canon’s new 100-400mm zoom.

Canon-Wide Angle Prime Lenses

Comparing the 16-35mm f/2.8L II to most of Canon’s wide angle prime lenses. Optical performance, ergonomics, focus, build quality..

Canon Ultra-wide Zoom Lenses: 17-40 and 16-35

Comparing the Canon 17-40mm f/4L and 16-35mm f/2.L II..

Nikon AF-S 14-24mm f/2.8G ED

Nikon’s ultra wide angle zoom and the Nikon 14mm f/2.8, critical focus shift behavior..

Samyang 14mm f/2.8

Ultra wide angle lens for Canon and Nikon..

Focus Shift In-Depth

Focus shift assesments of a wide variety of lenses of various brands. Shows a range of apertures for each lens and the mount of focus shift, discusses how to compensate for it..

Medium Format Magazine

Articles written for

Phase One XF and XT Full-Frame Medium Format

Phase One XF System, Phase One IQ4, Schneider Kreuznach Lenses.

Schneider Kreuznach LS 35mm f/3.5

Wide angle 24mm equivalent for Phase One XF system.

Fujifilm GFX, General

100 megapixels in a portable package!.

Fujifilm GFX100S

100 megapixels in a body the size of a 35mm DSLR!.

Fujifilm GFX100

100 megapixels in a portable package!.

Fujifilm GFX100 Focus Stacking and FOCUS BKT

100 megapixels in a portable package!.

Adapting Other Lenses to Fujifilm GFX

Adapting lenses delivers degraded results in most cases..

Fujifilm GFX 50R Operational Aspects

Experience, reader insights, etc..

Fujifilm GFX 50S Image Quality

Image quality assessments..

Fujifilm GF 23mm f/4 R WR

Ultra wide angle equivalent to 19mm f/3.3. .

Fujifilm GF 30mm f/3.5 R LM WR

Compact wide angle.

Fujifilm GF 32-64mm f/4 R LM WR

Mid-range zoom lens equivalent to 26-53mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 45mm f/2.8 R WR

Moderate wide angle equivalent to 37mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 45-100mm f/4 R LM OIS WR

Slightly long zoom lens equivalent to 37-82mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 50mm f/3.5 R LM WR

Slightly wide compact normal lens equivalent to 41mm f/2.9..

Fujifilm GF 63mm f/2.8 R WR

Standard normal lens equivalent to 52mm f/2.3..

Fujifilm GF 110mm f/2 R WR

Ultra high speed telephoto equivalent to 90mm f/1.6..

Fujifilm GF 120mm f/4 Macro R LM OIS WR

High performance macro photography on medium format, equivalent to 99mm f/3.3..

Fujifilm GF 250mm f/4 OIS R WR

Telephoto equivalent to 200mm lens. .

Hasselblad HC 50mm f/3.5 II

High performance moderate wide angle.

Hasselblad HC Macro 120mm f/4 II

High performance all-arounder macro lens.

Hasselblad X2D 100C

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses, 3rd generation..

Hasselblad X1D II 50C

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses, 2nd generation..

Hasselblad X1D

Mirrorless large format with leaf shutter lenses..

Hasselblad XCD 30mm f/3.5

25mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 38mm f/2.5 V

Normal lens equivqlent to 32mm..

Hasselblad XCD 45mm f/4 P

Moderate wide angle..

Hasselblad XCD 55mm f/2.5 V

Normal lens equivqlent to 45mm..

Hasselblad XCD 80mm f/1.9

Moderate telephoto..

Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/2.5 V

Normal lens equivqlent to 45mm..

Hasselblad XCD 120mm f/3.5

Telephoto macro lens, 99mm equivalent..

Hasselblad XCD 135mm f/2.8

Moderate telephoto..

Pentax 645D 40-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

A price/performance breakthrough?.

Pentax 645 Lenses (645D tests)

A variety of 645 lens tests on the 645D.

Pentax SMC DA 645 25mm f/4 AL (IF) SDM AW

Ultra wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Pentax HD 35mm f/3.5 AL [IF]

Moderate wide angle lens for Pentax 645..

Hasselblad H4D 50 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Hasselblad’s 3rd generation medium format entry measure up?.

Leica S2 37.5 Megapixel Medium Format DSLR

How does Leica’s medium format entry measure up in ergonomics, image quality, etc?.

Leica S Examples

Examples and comparison from the various lenses.

Leica S Typ 006

The last CCD-sensor Leica S model..

Leica 24mm f/3.5 Super-Elmar-S ASPH

Extreme wide angle with ultra high performance..

Leica 45mm f/2.8 Elmarit-S ASPH

Moderate wide angle with low distortion..

Leica 100mm f/2 Summicron-S ASPH

The fastest S lens..

Milvus 25mm f/1.4

Highest performing 25mm from Zeiss ever..

Milvus 135mm f/2

An Otus, in effect. Milvus garb for the 135/2 APO, with improved lens coatings on one element. See the ZF.2/ZE 135/2 review pages..


Start here to best utilize this guide..

Optical Performance

Sharpness and rendering..

15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra high performance in an extreme wild wide angle lens..

18mm f/3.5 Distagon

A brilliant, but also colorful character..

ZF.2/ZE 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Brilliant imaging, even wide open, but with a few quirks. (Review in progress) .

25mm f/2 Distagon

Ultra high performance with a fast aperture..

25mm f/2.8 Distagon

A gem with unusual close-focus..

28mm f/2 Distagon

An artist’s drawing tool..

35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Strokes of a master..

35mm f/2 Distagon

Balance and poise..

50/1.4 Planar vs 50/2 Makro-Planar

Comparing the two 50mm options near and far, more comparisons coming..

Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Fast high performance APO wide angle..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

Ultra high performance apochromatic normal lens, first in the Otus line..

Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and beauty..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar

Ultra high performance apochromatic medium telephoto, overview and technical..

Otus 85mm f/1.4 APO-Planar Rendering Style

Rendering style, bokeh and 'transparency' without peer..

Otus 100mm f/1.4 APO-Sonnar

Razor sharp with gorgeous bokeh..

85mm f/1.4 Planar

True-to-life imagery..

100mm f/2 Makro-Planar

King of bokeh! Corner-to-corner sharpness, world class..

135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

Beautiful bokeh, razor sharp, superb color correction..


Summary and wrap-up..

Raising the hit rate when capturing images

Untapped potential for greatly improved image quality..

Zeiss LensSpire Articles

Articles written for


What to look for in a binocular, plus reviews..

Travel and Places

Out of the way places and wonders..


Focus accuracy and focus shift..

Misc Reviews

Miscellaneous reviews..

Ask Lloyd Chambers

Questions and answers on photography and computers and more..

Overview of Zeiss Touit Lenses

High performance prime lenses for Sony NEX and Fujifilm X..

Viewfinder and LCD Viewing Aids

Accurate focus and ease for your eyes..

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon

Zeiss ZF.2 and Zeiss ZE Lenses For Canon and Nikon.

Coastal Optics 60mm f/4 UV-VIS-IR APO Macro

A reference lens for color correction..

Canon lenses

Overview and assessments of Canon lenses.

Nikon lenses

Overview and assessments of Nikon lenses.

Leica S2 37.5 Medium Format DSLR

Leica S2 37.5 megapixel DSLR and its lenses..

Lenses for Leica M8, Leica M9, M*

Lenses for Leica M cameras, especially the M9.


Beyond deep red, seeing the invisible..

Infrared Cameras Compared

Infrared Cameras Compared: Fuji S3 Pro UVIR, Nikon D70-IR, Canon EOS 5D-IR ..

Nikon D200 vs D2x

Vintage 2006 comparative review of Nikon D200 vs Nikon D2x..

Canon EOS R

Canon’s first full-frame mirrorless..

Canon EOS R5

Canon’s high-res mirrorless..

Canon RF 14-35mm f/4L IS USM

Compact ultra-wide zoom..

Canon RF 16mm f/2.8 STM

Compact ultra-wide..

Canon RF 24-70mm f/2.8L IS USM

Fast standard zoom lens..

Canon RF 24-105mm f/4L IS USM

Bread and butter all-around zoom..

Canon RF 35mm f/1.8 Macro STM

All-arounder compact lens with macro capability..

Canon RF 85mm f/2 Macro IS USM

Fast macro lens..

Canon RF 70-200mm f/4L IS USM

Compact telephoto zoom..

Nikon Z7 Overview, Setup, General

Setup, IBIS performance, focusing..

Nikon Z7 IBIS and Focusing

Setup, IBIS performance, focusing..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 20mm f/1.8 S

Fast ultra wide angle for Nikon Z..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24mm f/1.8 S

Fast wide angle for Nikon Z..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 14-30mm f/4 S

Ultra wide compact zoom for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-50mm f/4-6.3

Pancake zoom, wide angle to normal..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/2.8 S

Fast mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 24-70mm f/4 S

Mid-range zoom expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 35mm f/1.8 S

Moderate wide angle expressly designed for Nikon Z cameras..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 85mm f/1.8 S

Fast portrait telephoto for Nikon Z..

Nikon NIKKOR Z 70-200mm f/2.8 S

Fast portrait telephoto for Nikon Z..

Sony A7R V

5th Generation standard-setting camera..

Sony A1 Setup and Configuration

Menus, buttons, customization..

Sony A1 Eye AF

Eye autofocus with humans, animals, birds..

Sony Alpha A7R IV

4th Generation standard-setting camera..

Sony Alpha A7R IV Design Issues

Bad behaviors, anti-design, issues ..

Sony Alpha A7R III

Attention to details: a solid upgrade over the A7R II..

Sony Alpha A7R II

Attention to details: a big upgrade over the A7R..

Sony Alpha A7R

Full frame compact mirrorless with interchangeable lenses..

Sony Alpha A9

Blackout-free 20 fps speed demon..

Sony Alpha A7 II

Sensor stabilized 24MP full-frame..

Menus and Button Setup

How to configure the camera for serious shooting..

Sony FE 14mm f/1.8 GM

Ultra high performance extreme wide angle..

Sony FE 24mm f/1.4 GM

High performance wide angle..

Sony FE 24mm f/2.8 G

High performance, high speed..

Sony FE 28mm f/2

Fast wide angle..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 GM

High performance mild wide-angle..

Sony FE 35mm f/1.4 Distagon ZA

Fast and gorgeous moderate wide angle Zeiss design..

Sony Planar T* FE 50mm f/1.4 ZA

Fast high performance normal lens of Zeiss design..

Sony FE 50mm f/2.8 Macro

Compact macro lens focusing to 1:1..

Sony FE 35mm f/2.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact moderate wide angle for Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 40mm f/2.5 G

High performance, high speed..

Sony FE 50mm f/1.2 GM

High performance, high speed..

Sony FE 55mm f/1.8 ZA Sonnar

Compact normal lens for full-frame Sony mirrorless..

Sony FE 85mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade medium telephoto..

Sony FE 100mm f/2.8 STF GM

Razor sharp medium telephoto with apodization filter..

Sony 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS

Native-mount macro length designed by Zeiss..

Sony FE 135mm f/1.4 GM

Top-grade telephoto..

Sigma FE 14mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art

Outstanding fast wide angle, DSLR optical design..

Sigma FE 14-24mm f/2.8 DG DN Art

Native-mount ultra wide angle high performance zoom for mirrorless..

Sigma FE 24-70mm f/2.8 DG DN Art

Native-mount mid-range zoom for mirrorless..

Sigma FE 35mm f/1.2 DG DN Art

Ultra high speed native-mount moderate wide angle..

Sigma FE 35mm f/1.4 DG DN Art

Fast native-mount moderate wide angle..

Sigma FE 24mm f/3.5 DG DN Contemporary

Compact native-mount wide angle..

Sigma FE 45mm f/2.8 DG DN Contemporary

Compact native-mount normal lens..

Sigma FE 85mm f/1.4 DG DN Art

Ultra high performance medium telephoto..

Sigma FE 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art

Highly corrected medium telephoto..

Sigma FE 70mm f/2.8 DG Macro Art

Macro lens also excellent for all-around shooting..

Voigtlander FE Heliar-Hyper 10mm f/5.6 Aspherical III

Anything wider would be a fisheye..

Voigtlander FE Super Wide-Heliar 15mm f/4.5 Aspherical III

Ultra wide native mount manual focus lens for Sony mirrorless..

Voigtlander FE 21mm f/1.4 Aspherical

Fast high performance manual focus wide angle..

Voigtlander FE 35mm f/1.2 Aspherical

Fast mild wide angle lens..

Voigtlander FE Nokton Classic 35mm f/1.4

Fast lens speed with curious rendering..

Voigtlander FE 35mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

High-grade manual focus wide-normal lens..

Voigtlander FE Nokton 40mm f/1.2 Aspherical

Fast lens speed for versatile rendering..

Voigtlander FE 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical

High-grade manual focus normal lens..

Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 Macro APO-Lanthar Aspherical

Ultra high grade performer at a modest price..

Voigtlander Nokton 42.5mm f/0.95

Ultra fast medium telephoto manual focus lens..

Mitakon Zhongyi Speedmaster 50mm f/0.95

Speed to match the Leica Noctilux..

Meyer-Optik Gorlitz Nocturnus 50mm f/0.95 II

Speed to match the Leica Noctilux-M, based on Mitakon Zonghyi optics..

Sony FE 12-24mm f/2.8 GM

Fast extreme wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/2.8 GM

Pro-grade f/2.8 wide angle zoom..

Sony FE 16-35mm f/4 ZA OSS Vario-Tessar

Comapact ultra-wide zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless..

Sony FE 20-70mm f/4 G

Wide range zoom aimed at bloggers..

Sony FE 24-70mm f/2.8 GM II

Premiere mid-range zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 28-60mm f/4-5.6

Compact short-range zoom..

Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

Wide mid-range zoom targeted at video shooters..

Sony FE 70-200mm f/2.8 GM OSS

Barely good-enough telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6 G OSS

Compact long range telephoto zoom for Sony full frame mirrorless.

Sony FE 600mm f/4 GM OSS

Hand-holdable super telephoto zoom..

Samyang FE 24mm T/1.5

Wide angle lens adapted from DSLR, native E-mount, all manual..

Ricoh GXR with A12 Mount for Leica M Lenses.

Use Leica M lenses on a digital back designed for them..

Fujifilm Finepix X100

The best compact big-sensor digital camera yet?.

Nikon Coolpix A

Fixed 28mm lens with APS-C sensor free of anti-aliasing blur with wonderful color..

Ricoh GR

Razor sharp 28mm lens on APS-C sensor and outstanding usability and features..

Sony Cybershot RX1R II

Diminutive full-frame camera with 35mm f/2 fixed lens..

Sony Cybershot DSC-RX1 / RX1R

Full frame camera in an ultra-compact body with or without anti-aliasing filter..


Stunningly high image quality in a 20MP point and wide range zoom..

Olympus M.Zuiko 7-14mm f/2.8 PRO

Wide angle zoom equivalent (14-28mm equivalent)..

Olympus Zuiko 12-40mm f/2.8 PRO Zoom

A high performance mid-range zoom..

Olympus M.Zuiko 17mm f/1.8

A fast moderate wide angle..

Olympus M.ZUIKO DIGITAL 60mm f/2.8 ED Macro

Native Micro Four Thirds macro lens..

Olympus Zuiko 75mm f/1.8 ED Telephoto

Beautiful bokeh, long reach fast speed, compact lens..

Panasonic Leica DG Summilux 15mm f/1.7 ASPH Micro 4/3

A weak sibling covers the wide end.

Panasonic Leica DG Elmarit 200mm f/2.8 POWER O.I.S.

High performance super telephoto..

Olympus OM-D E-M1

A worthy upddate to the E-M5 with pro-grade build quality..

Fujifilm X-Pro1

Interchangeable lenses on a 16MP APS-C sensor.

Fujifilm X-Pro2

Fujifilm's 24MP APS-C offering..

Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS

Wide angle zoom equivalent to 15-36mm.

Fujifilm XF 23mm f/1.4 R

Compact moderate wide angle..

Fujifilm XF 56mm f/1.2 APD

Apodization filter version of the 56/1.2..

Fujifilm Fujinon XF 60mm f/2.4 R

Short telephoto macro lens..

Sony NEX-7 and NEX-5N

24 or 16 megapixels in a compact body with APS-C sensor..

Zeiss 24mm f/1.8 for Sony NEX

Moderate wide angle for Sony NEX..

Zeiss Loxia (Overview)

Manual focus lenses for Sony Full-Frame Sony Mirrorless..

Zeiss Loxia 21mm f/2.8 Distagon

Outstanding ultra wide angle performer..

Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

Outstanding wide angle, superb performer..

Zeiss Batis (Overview)

Zeiss autofocus lenses Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 18mm f/2.8 Distagon

Autofocus extreme wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon

Autofocus wide angle for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Batis 40mm f/2

All-around slightly wide angle/normal with close focus..

Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

Autofocus portrait lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless..

Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon

Ultra wide angle lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar

Normal lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X..

Zeiss Touit 50mm f/2.8M

Moderate telephoto macro lens for Sony NEX or Fujifilm X. Useful on full frame too!.

Leica X Vario

Leica’s 28-70mm APS-C compact camera..

Leica X2

Leica’s large-sensor 'affordable' compact camera..

Overview of Sigma Foveon Sensor cameras

Foveon X3 true-color sensor for outstanding resolution..

Leica M11

Leica M 60 Megapixels..

Leica M10-R

Leica M 40 Megapixels..

Leica M10 Monochrom

Leica M 40 megapixel monochrome sensor..

Leica M10

Leica M mount in slim body with SL-type sensor..

Leica M Typ 240 Usability Issues

Specific issues affecting usability..

Leica M Typ 240 In Use

Overall design and behavior..

Leica M Typ 240 Compared To APS-C Cameras

Relative sharpness and performance vs APS-C cameras..

Leica M Monochrom In the Field

Field shooting the Leica MM, and comparisons..

Leica Q (Typ 116)

24-megapixel fixed lens compact full-frame..

Leica M9: User’s Guide and Review

High resolution digital rangefinder.

Leica M9 Rear LCD, Image Review

Modern digital features lacking with the M9..

Lens Quality control

How good is Leica quality control?.

Considerations in choosing a lens.

Focal lengths, color, weight and travel considerations. [relevant, but dated/old material].

Leica 16-18-21mm f/4 Tri-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra wide angle zoom lens..

Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fastest and widest lens..

Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 21mm..

Leica 24mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast wide angle..

Leica 24mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH

A discontinued but excellent 24mm..

Leica 24mm f/3.8 Elmar-M ASPH

Leica’s best-performing 24mm, and with a flat field..

Leica 28mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s fast 28mm..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s widest lens utilizing built-in frame lines..

Leica 28mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH (2016)

Tweaked 2016 redesign..

Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M ASPH (pre-2016)

Leica’s smallest and lightest M lens with superlative performance..

Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH (2010 FLE)

Leica’s superlative and most natural lens for the M..

Leica 35mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

High performance moderate wide angle..

Leica 35mm f/2 Summicron-M ASPH

Leica’s f/2 35mm for the M..

Leica M 50mm Lenses

Six models to choose from..

Leica 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH

World’s fastest 50mm full-frame lens..

Leica 50mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH

Leica’s superlative normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

High performance but flawed 50mm normal lens..

Leica 50mm f/2 APO Flare

Ghosting and veiling and ring flare pre/post production fix..

Leica 50mm f/2 Summicron-M

Leica’s compact low-distortion normal lens..

Leica 75mm f/1.25 Noctilux-M ASPH

Leica’s ultra high grade and ultra fast modern short telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M

Leica’s retro telephoto..

Leica 90mm f/2.4 (2.5) Summarit-M

Leica’s compact 90mm for the M..

Leica 90mm f/4 Macro-Elmar-M

Diminutive telephoto and macro lens..

Shooting Leica R Lenses on Leica M

General discussion of R lenses on M..

Leica 90mm f/2 APO-Summicron-R ASPH

Compact lens for portraiture or similar..

Leica 100mm f/2.8 APO-Macro-Elmarit-R

Superb all-around macro and general-purpose lens..

Leica 180mm f/2.8 APO-Elmarit-R

World’s best mid-range telephoto lens..

Leica 280mm f/4 APO-Telyt-R

Compact and ultra high performance long telephoto..

Zeiss ZM 15mm f/2.8 Distagon

Notes and examples..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon

Fast and ultra high performance moderate wide angle rangefinder lens..

Zeiss ZM 35mm f/2 Biogon

All around razor sharp performer..

Zeiss ZM 85mm f/2 Sonnar

Ultra high performance (discontinued).

Voigtlander Nokton 35mm f/1.2 II ASPH

Fastest 35mm lens for Leica M, great ergonomics..

Voigtlander M 50mm f/1.1

A slightly slower, but smaller and lighter alternative to the Noctilux, at 1/10 the price..


ARCHIVAL MATERIAL. Terrific backup bodies or even primary body for M-mount lenses..

Blog posts, reverse chronological


2023-01-17 Sony FE 20-70mm f/4G: Appealing Zoom Range, How Good Will It Be?

2023-01-08 Sony A7R V Pixel Shift on Complex Outdoor Scenes: a Stunning Advance in Image Quality

2023-01-08 Reader Comment: Sony A7R V vs Sony A1 Pixel Shift, Focus Bracketing for Focus Stacking

2023-01-06 Sony A7R V Focus Bracketing Example @ 12mm: Failure to Reach INF so Badly Blurred, (“Chocolate Brown Alpine Creek”)

2023-01-05 Sony A7R V: Issues with Focus Bracketing for Focus Stacking — Yet Another Bug

2023-01-02 Sony A7R V: Issues with Focus Bracketing for Focus Stacking


2022-12-13 Sony A7R V: Focus Bracketing Feature Cannot be Relied Upon

2022-12-13 Sony A7R V: File Numbering — Resets to 0001 with each Focus Bracketing Series

2022-12-05 Sony A7R V: Focus Bracketing for Focus Stacking

2022-10-09 Hasselblad X2D: Usability, Operating Issues, Autofocus

2022-09-15 Leica Upgrades Leica 35mm f/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH Physical Design

2022-09-14 Hasselblad X2D to Support Focus Bracketing

2022-09-07 Announced: Hasselblad X2D-100C with 100 Megapixel Sensor, IBIS, Phase-Detect AF

2022-04-27 Sony FE 24-70mm f/2.8 GM II: Unprecedented Performance in a Mid-Range Zoom?

2022-04-06 Recent Experience on Fujifilm GFX100S on Focusing Precision and Accuracy in the Field

2022-03-23 5 Years and Counting, Fujifilm Medium Format Autofocus Lacks Precision and Accuracy for Erratic Sharpness + Reader Comments

2022-02-26 Autofocus Accuracy: Fujifilm GFX100S + Fujifilm GF 35-70mm f/4.5-5.6

2022-01-14 Leica M11 — Rangefinder vs EVF Focusing Accuracy


2021-10-29 Canon RF 35mm f/1.8 Macro STM: Focusing Accuracy on Canon EOS R5

2021-10-27 Comparing Lenses is Darn Challenging: Canon RF Zooms

2021-07-07 Voigtlander FE 35mm f/2 APO-Lanthar: Focus Shift in Landscapes, Patriarch Grove

2021-06-20 Reader Comment: Aging Eyes and Autofocus

2021-06-02 Fujifilm GF 80mm f/1.7 R WR: Is It Prone to AF Motor Failures?

2021-05-07 Test Protocol for Focus Creep / Unstable Lens Focus

2021-05-06 Voigtlander FE 35mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical: what looked like focus shift is *partly* shown to be Focus Creep / Unstable Lens Focus

2021-05-02 Essay and Reader Comments: Sony A1 vs Fujifilm GFX100S: Real Achievable Capture Resolution, Effort Level, Enjoyment (UPDATED, v2)

2021-04-28 Fujifilm GFX100S + Fujifilm GF 30mm f/3.5: Serious Front-Focusing Errors

2021-04-27 NEW! Sigma FE 35mm f/1.4 DG DN Art

2021-04-26 Reader Question: Which Lenses and Camera for Aging Eyes?

2021-04-09 Reader Comments: Fujifilm GFX100S

2021-04-04 Voigtlander FE 65mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Aspherical Defocuses Itself When Angled Up or Down (Focus Creep)

2021-03-13 Looking for Reader Suggestions: Best Ways to Acquire and Track Human and Animal Eyes

2021-02-16 Voigtlander M 50mm f/2 APO-Lanthar Now Available for Leica M Mount


2020-12-13 Leica M10 Monochrome: Filters and Focus Error / Sharpness

2020-10-18 Swing and Tilt: Subject Distance vs Lens Focusing Offset

2020-10-14 Nikon Z7 II Narrows the Gap with Last Year’s Cameras

2020-09-21 Reader Comment: Magnifying Eyepiece for DSLRs

2020-07-17 Leica M10-R and Leica M10 Monochrom: 40-Megapixel Sensor, but Nil New Design Thinking —  with essay by Roy P

2020-07-10 Canon EOS R5 Supports Focus Stacking via “Focus Bracketing” Feature

2020-07-09 Canon EOS R5 Ships Soon + Canon RF 85mm f/2 Macro IS STM, Canon RF 100-500mm F4.5-7.1 L IS USM, Canon RF 600mm f/11 IS STM, Canon RF 800mm f/11 IS STM

2020-05-24 Hasselblad X1D II 50C: Operational and Focusing Bugs


2019-12-04 Attention all Camera Makers: 23.5 Things To Please Your Customers

2019-11-22 Making Sharp Images: Case Study: Major Sharpness Gains via Ideal Focus with Lenses having Peripheral Forward Field Curvature (Pine Creek High Peaks)

2019-10-14 Sony A7R IV: Confusing Stop-Down Behavior, Camera Chooses Arbitrary/Unspecified Aperture for Viewing/Focusing

2019-09-14 Reader Comment: Nikon Z7 vs Nikon Z6 for Focusing Tracking and Noise

2019-09-02 Reader Comment: Focusing the Panasonic S1R Manually

2019-09-01 First Look at the Sigma 35mm f/1.2 DG DN Art: Lack Micro Contrast at f/1.2 and f/1.4

2019-08-06 Fujifilm GFX100: Troubling Autofocus Errors, FOCUS BKT Problems

2019-07-25 Fujifilm GFX100: Severe Autofocus Errors

2019-07-23 Reader Comment: Sony Mirrorless Lenses on Nikon Z7 via Techart PRO Autofocus Adapter

2019-07-23 Fujifilm Focusing Issues in the Fujifilm GFX100 Have Existed for At Least 6 Years in Fujifilm X Series Also

2019-06-20 Focusing Zeiss DSLR Lenses For Peak Performance, PART ONE: The Challenges

2019-05-26 Focus Shift, a General Discussion

2019-04-17 Panasonic S1R: a Way to get 2X more Magnification in Manual Focus

2019-04-10 Panasonic S1R: Magnified Live View with its Gorgeous High-Res EVF = Total FAIL


2018-10-30 Nikon Z7 Autofocus: Recommended Protocol for Best Focus (static subjects), Plus When It Fails

2018-10-14 Must Read: Nikon Z7 Aperture/Lens Diaphragm Behavior While Viewing/Focusing vs Focus Shift in Lenses

2018-10-10 Nikon Z7 Autofocus Accuracy: Pinpoint AF vs Magnified Live View Reference Frame

2018-10-09 Nikon Z7: Image Sharpness vs Zone of Focus, Autofocus Error and Mitigation

2018-10-03 Reader Comments: Nikon Z7 Focusing and IBIS vs Sony Mirrorless

2018-09-26 Leica S3 Medium Format: an Updated Dinosaur

2018-09-20 Coming Soon: Sony FE 24mm f/1.4 GM

2018-09-01 Reader Comment: Nikon FTZ Lens Adapter vs 3rd Party Lenses — Autofocus Might Not Work

2018-08-25 Nikon Z7: Pinpoint AF

2018-07-31 Reader Question: Focus Shift with Nikon Mirrorless

2018-07-11 Reader Comment: Sony Mirrorless Focusing in Low Light

2018-07-06 Sigma 105mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art for Portraits (UPDATED with examples now published)

2018-06-22 Sigma DG HSM Art Lenses Now Available for Sony Mirrorless

2018-06-14 Leica 90mm f/2.2 Thambar-M: Focusing Challenges, with examples

2018-05-25 Leica 75mm f/1.25 Noctilux-M ASPH

2018-02-14 New Zeiss Loxia 25mm f/2.4 Distagon

2018-02-14 Lenses Coming for Review for Sony Mirrorless

2018-01-30 Fujifilm GFX Does not Always Focus at Full Aperture, Could it Be Compensation for Focus Shift?


2017-12-18 Reader Comments: Sony A7R III, Nikon D850, EVF, Focusing, Landscape

2017-12-08 Reader Comment: Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Skewed Lenses

2017-11-14 The Significance of Automated Focus Stepping for Focus Stacking (Nikon D850)

2017-11-13 Nikon D850: Flange Focal Distance Problem Means that my Zeiss Milvus 18/2.8 reaches End of Its Focusing Range at around 28°F and is Hosed when it goes colder.

2017-11-08 Reader Comment: Zeiss Milvus 25mm f/1.4 vs Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4 (manual focus vs autofocus)

2017-10-28 Critical Tip on Focus Stacking Focusing, Particularly with Nikon D850 Autofocus

2017-10-24 Nikon D850: 'Focus Shift Shooting' Feature is a Reason by Itself to buy the Nikon D850 — Saves Time, Guarantees Peak Quality

2017-10-17 Nikon D850, Priorities

2017-10-17 Nikon D850 Experience Report: AF Fine Tune, Focusing Precision, Accuracy with the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G + Focus Shift Behavior

2017-10-14 Nikon D850 Experience Report: Adjusting Autofocus Accuracy with the Nikon 105mm f/1.4E

2017-10-08 Nikon D850: New Copy Seems Good (except for infinity focus)

2017-10-01 Nikon D850: the Focusing Distance Issues Stem from a Sensor that is not Parallel to the Lens Mount (Nikon quality control issue)

2017-09-29 Nikon D850: Apparent Build Tolerance Error in Flange Focal Distance vs Optical Viewfinder, Causes Major Focus Error with Manual Focus Lenses and Focus Confirmation

2017-08-26 Reader Question: Best Autofocus Lenses for Nikon D850

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Pinpoint AF Mode, Focus Peaking, Electronic Rangefinder

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Metering and Autofocus

2017-08-26 Nikon D850: Focusing and Metering

2017-08-12 Fujifilm GFX Does not Always Focus at Full Aperture

2017-08-10 Fujifilm GFX 50s Firmware Update Might Degrade Focusing by Stopping Down?

2017-08-08 Fujifilm Issues a Firmware Update Claiming Fixes for Two Focusing Bugs, AKA “phenomenon”

2017-06-21 REVIEWED: New Zeiss Milvus 35mm f/1.4

2017-06-20 Leica M10 Coming This Week

2017-06-02 Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.4E ED

2017-05-19 Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Aperture Series with GF 120/4: View to Mt Whitney From Alabama Hills

2017-05-16 Nikon Appears to be Doing Focus Shift Compensation, at Least with the Nikon D810 and 70-200/2.8E

2017-05-09 Fujifilm GFX Sensor Quality

2017-05-07 Sigma 135mm f/1.8 DG HSM Art: How Good is Autofocus Accuracy on Nikon D810

2017-04-25 Reader Comment: Hasselblad X1D

2017-04-24 Adapting Lenses to the Fujifilm GFX

2017-04-19 Sony’s New α9 Camera Appears to Target the High-End Sport Shooter Market

2017-04-14 Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Aperture Series with 63/2.8: View to Mt Whitney From Alabama Hills

2017-04-11 Fujifilm GFX Focusing Precision and Aperture Series: Mining Town Church

2017-04-02 Hasselblad X1D: Autofocus Errors with Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2 Update: Confirmed, Hasselblad Working On It

2017-03-26 Hasselblad X1D: Unacceptable Autofocus Errors with Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2 (Update)

2017-03-25 Hasselblad X1D: Unacceptable Autofocus Errors with Hasselblad XCD 90mm f/3.2

2017-03-08 Reader Question: Focus Shift (stems from Fujifilm GFX findings, but applies to all brands)

2017-01-18 Leica M10: Inertial Design

2017-01-08 Reader Comment: More Binocular Thoughts (continued) from Roy P


2016-10-18 Canon 16-35mm f/2.8L III

2016-10-15 Why Lens Performance Matters for Focus Stacking

2016-10-15 Reader Question: Focusing with Sony Mirrorless

2016-09-19 Sigma 85mm f/1.4 DG HSM Art in Nikon, Canon, Sigma SA Mount

2016-09-19 Sigma 12-24mm f/4 DG HSM Art in Nikon, Canon, Sigma SA Mount

2016-09-19 Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II: Sport Shooter’s Dream?

2016-09-19 Olympus 25mm f/1.2 PRO

2016-09-15 Zeiss Announces Loxia 85mm f/2.4 for Sony Mirrorless

2016-09-08 Zeiss Announces 3 Milvus Lenses for Nikon and Canon DSLRs

2016-09-01 Sony FE 50mm f/2.8 Macro

2016-07-27 Nikon 105mm f/1.4E

2016-07-25 Leica SL Focusing Errors

2016-06-16 Home Today, Leica SL, Pentax K1, and More Coming Soon

2016-05-22 Bellows Systems for Nikon, Canon, Leica, Sony: Why Consider Them?

2016-05-10 Sony FE PZ 28-135mm f/4G OSS

2016-05-08 Sony 85mm f/1.4 Scratchy/Noisy Focusing: I Heard None with my Sample

2016-05-05 Shipping: Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-56 G OSS

2016-05-01 EVF Mirrorless vs DLSR

2016-04-24 Sony A7R II + Sony 85mm f/1.4 GM Autofocus at Moderate Outdoor Distance

2016-04-24 Nikon D5 + AF-S 85/1.4G Autofocus at Moderate Outdoor Distance

2016-04-20 Nikon D5 Autofocus on Lens Align Target at f/1.4 and f/4

2016-04-19 Sony A7R II + Sony G Master Lenses: Major Focusing Bug?

2016-04-18 Sony A7R II: Configuring Autofocus + Eye AF

2016-04-13 Sony G Master 85mm f/1.4 Focus Accuracy

2016-04-09 Sony G Master 85mm f/1.4 Scratchy/Noisy Focus with Internal Wear

2016-04-05 Panasonic Lumix DMC-GX85 Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds Powerhouse

2016-03-31 Sony FE 70-300mm f/4.5-56 G OSS

2016-02-03 Sony A6300, and the Fujifilm X-Pro2

2016-02-01 Canon EOS-1D X Mark II

2016-01-08 Leica SL: Focus Point Bug

2016-01-05 Nikon D5 and Nikon D500 Announced: 4K Video, Advanced Autofocus


2015-12-09 Sony RX1R II Autofocus: Ruined the Shoot

2015-11-29 Back Home... On Shooting in Difficult Conditions

2015-10-22 The Irrational Aim of f/1.4 Lenses

2015-10-14 Zeiss Announces the new Otus 28mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon

2015-09-21 Reader Question: Nikon or Sony?

2015-09-18 Hartblei 40mm, 80mm, 120mm SuperRotators

2015-09-15 Reader Comment: Weather Sealing on Zeiss Milvus vs Zeiss Otus

2015-08-26 Announced: Canon 35mm f/1.4L II

2015-08-09 Sony 90mm f/2.8: Bad Sample (NOW WITH EXAMPLES)

2015-07-28 Leica S Typ 006: Autofocus Errors

2015-07-21 Will the Leica Q Kill the Leica M?

2015-07-11 Leica Q: Autofocus Fails Permanently (well, actually a weird cross-coupling of AF to info display)

2015-07-07 Sony A7R II: Is it the Death Knell for Leica M?

2015-06-18 Sigma Announces World’s First Full-Frame f/2 Zoom for Canon, Nikon, Sigma Mounts: 24-35mm f/2 DG HSM Art

2015-06-10 Announced: Sony RX10 Mark II, Sony RX100 Mark IV

2015-05-07 Leica 24-Megapixel Leica M Monochrom Typ 246 Starts Shipping

2015-04-22 Zeiss Announces 'Batis' line: Zeiss Batis 25mm f/2 Distagon and Zeiss Batis 85mm f/1.8 Sonnar

2015-04-18 Don’t Confuse Focusing Distance with Reproduction Ratio aka Magnification

2015-04-04 Tamron SP 15-30mm f/2.8 Di VC USD: Focusing Problems and Lens Skew

2015-02-09 Sigma Announces 24mm f/1.4 DG HSM A Lens for DSLRs, Joining its Superb 35mm and 50mm Siblings

2015-02-05 Canon 11-24mm f/4L USM Ultra Wide Zoom


2014-11-09 Zeiss Loxia Ergonomics and Focusing

2014-10-17 Focus Shift Compared: Nikon 20/1.8G vs 14-24/2.8

2014-09-16 Zeiss ZM 35mm f/1.4 Distagon for Leica M: Best 35mm M Lens Yet?

2014-09-02 Zeiss Loxia: Manual Focus All Metal Build Lenses for Mirrorless Full Frame

2014-08-26 Nikon D810: Recommended Picture Control Settings for Magnified Live View Focusing

2014-07-22 Reader Comments: Lenses for Sports Photography

2014-07-03 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM A: Best Autofocus Lens, In Stock for Canon

2014-06-07 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Discussing Optical and Autofocus Expectations, LOCA

2014-05-20 EVF and Sensor Resolution: Higher is So Much Better for Critical Focus

2014-05-19 Tilt/Shift Lenses: Focusing for Optimal Tilt Placement + Focus Peaking Assist

2014-05-13 Canon Announces 16-35mm f/4L IS

2014-05-11 Ricoh GR: Close Range Shooting for Travel Needs?

2014-04-18 Consistent Focusing Accuracy Requires a High-Resolution EVF: Leica M vs Sony

2014-04-14 Pentax 645Z 51-Megapixel Medium Format DSLR, 13 Pentax Lenses Now Avail in USA

2014-04-10 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-03-03 Autofocus Done the Right Way

2014-02-19 Reader Comment: Zacuto Loupe: “amazed by the result”

2014-02-03 Samyang FE 24mm T/1.5 Cine E-Mount on Sony A7

2014-01-22 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-01-06 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 DG HSM 'Art' (for Canon, Nikon, etc)

2014-01-05 Sigma SD1 Merrill: Autofocus Errors


2013-12-05 Sony A7R: the Kitchen Sink Menu System Design Paradigm is Alive and Well

2013-11-19 Mono Lake Panorama with Leica 75mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

2013-10-27 Reader Comment: Sony RX1R Focusing at Shooting Aperture

2013-10-25 Sigma 24-105mm f/4 DG HSM OIS zoom for Nikon, Canon, Sony, Sigma DSLRs

2013-10-10 DSLRs Still Have no EVF Option

2013-10-07 Zeiss Otus 55mm f/1.4 APO-Distagon: Sets a New Metric for Lens Performance to Rival the Best of Medium Format

2013-10-03 Canon 200-400mm

2013-09-15 Fujifilm XF 23mm f/1.4 R

2013-09-13 What Every Leica X Vario User Should Know About Autofocus and Manual Focus

2013-08-08 Guide to Leica Subscribers: Which Leica M Lenses?

2013-08-01 Field Curvature of the Zeiss 15mm f/2.8 Distagon with Focus Bracketing

2013-07-31 Is the Full Frame DSLR the New Medium Format? What do DSLRs Lack?

2013-07-19 Reader Comment on Ricoh GR: Leaf Shutter In Lens and ND Filter + Vision & Autofocus

2013-07-19 Reader Comment on Ricoh GR: Leaf Shutter In Lens and ND Filter + Vision & Autofocus

2013-07-12 Focus Bracketing for Peak Sharpness with a 15mm Lens

2013-05-20 Autofocus with Sony NEX-7

2013-05-10 Sony NEX-7 Autofocus Insanity

2013-05-09 Zeiss Touit Lenses: the Birds Roost

2013-05-09 Zeiss Touit Lenses to Arrive Friday

2013-05-05 Zeiss 50mm f/2 Makro-Planar: Future Potential on ~56 Megapixel DSLR

2013-05-04 Zeiss Touit Autofocus Lenses for Sony NEX or Fuji X Now Available for Pre-Order at B&H

2013-05-01 Zeiss Touit 32mm f/1.8 Planar — Autofocus Normal Lens for Sony NEX or Fuji X

2013-05-01 Zeiss Touit 12mm f/2.8 Distagon — Autofocus Ultra Wide Angle for Sony NEX or Fuji X

2013-04-28 EVF or LCD Zoomed-In Focusing Implementations

2013-04-27 Optical and Electronic Viewfinders: EVF + Optical + LCD = Synergy

2013-04-24 Reader Comment: Autofocus Accuracy

2013-04-23 Reader Comments: Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar

2013-03-31 Sigma 180mm f/2.8 APO-Macro DG HSM: Focusing and Image Stabilization

2013-03-17 Sigma 150mm and 180mm f/2.8 APO-Macro DG HSM

2013-03-06 Why an Electronic Viewfinder (EVF) is Not Optional, and Not Sufficient Either

2013-02-17 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Autofocus Portraits After Fine Focus Adjust

2013-02-17 Focus Accuracy: Focusing Screens for f/1.4 Lenses in Canon, Nikon

2013-02-10 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM: Autofocus Portraits

2013-02-10 Autofocus Accuracy: Sigma 35mm f/1.4 and Nikon AF-S 35/1.4G using Lens Align and Fine Focus Adjust

2013-01-22 Olympus Zuiko 17mm f/1.8 on E-M5: Stepped vs Continuous Focusing

2013-01-13 Canon EF 40mm f/2.8 STM: Focus Bracketing Study (applicable to ANY brand camera or lens)


2012-12-01 Setting Low Contrast for RAW Histogram vs Live View Focusing

2012-11-16 Sigma 35mm f/1.4 DG HSM for Nikon, Canon, etc

2012-11-10 Focusing the Olympus 75mm f/1.8 ED — How Much Visual Difference Does 20mm difference at 2 Meters Make?

2012-10-29 Reader Question: Leica M Lenses/Focusing and Zeiss ZM 35/2 Biogon

2012-10-22 Olympus M. Zuiko 60mm f/2.8 ED Macro (Micro Four Thirds)

2012-10-15 Sigma DP1 Merrill — Autofocus Accuracy

2012-10-13 Reader Asks: Zeiss 135mm f/2 APO-Sonnar or Nikon 135mm f/2 DC?

2012-10-11 Canon 5D Mark II at B&H $1799 — Discussion

2012-09-17 24-Megapixel CMOS Leica M (Typ 240)

2012-09-14 Shitty Products

2012-09-02 Reader Comment: Autofocus Accuracy

2012-08-11 Nikon D800 / D800E autofocus Precision

2012-08-03 Autofocus Accuracy: Canon 1D X + EF 85mm f/1.2L II

2012-07-19 Zeiss 35mm f/1.4 Distagon: Focusing Manually By Eye

2012-07-09 Errors with Nikon Contrast-Detect Autofocus

2012-06-21 Why Don’t Nikon and Canon Compensate for Focus Shift? (Hasselblad Does!)

2012-06-08 Autofocus Accuracy of Nikon D800E + Nikon AF-S 28mm f/1.8G

2012-06-02 Reader Comments: Nikon D800 Autofocus, Pentaprism Blur

2012-05-10 Leica 50mm f/2 APO-Summicron-M ASPH

2012-05-04 Reader Comment: Canon 5D Mark III

2012-04-25 Nikon D800 / D800E Focusing Aid (Eye)

2012-04-18 Reader Comments on D800, 5D Mark III

2012-04-18 Nikon D800: AF-S Autofocus with Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8G VR II

2012-04-14 Nikon D800 Focusing Screens: BrightScreen and KatzEye

2012-04-14 Fuji X-Pro1+ 35/1.4 Examples

2012-04-12 Nikon D800 AF-S Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 85mm f/1.4G

2012-04-12 Nikon D800 AF-S Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 60mm f/2.8G

2012-04-11 Nikon D800 Autofocus Accuracy: 85/1.8G + 85/1.4G + Mosaic Target

2012-04-11 Nikon D800 AF-S Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 85mm f/1.4G

2012-04-11 Canon 5D Mark III Autofocus With 85mm f/1.2L II (Ad-Hoc)

2012-04-10 Nikon D800 Autofocus Accuracy

2012-04-08 Reader Comments on Nikon D800 Color Gamut, Focus Accuracy, Live View

2012-04-08 Nikon D800 Autofocus Accuracy with Nikon 85mm f/1.8G

2012-04-07 Readers Comment on my Nikon D800 vs Leica S2 Shootout

2012-03-29 Nikon D800 Focusing Screens

2012-03-27 Canon 5D Mark III Examples, Focusing, Noise

2012-03-25 Canon 5D Mark III First Impressions + Reader Comments

2012-03-10 Which 28mm Leica M Lens is Best? 28/2.8 Elmarit or 28/2 Summicron?

2012-03-08 Thoughts on Canon EOS 5D Mark III, 22.3 Megapixels

2012-02-25 Reader Asks: Nikon 35mm f/1.4G Focusing Issues Resolved?

2012-02-07 Nikon D800 / D800E — Lens Requirements for 36 Megapixels


2011-12-23 New Case Study in Making Sharp Images — Leica 28mm Comparison

2011-12-21 LCDVF Digital SLR Viewfinder (for Live View focusing, video, viewing LCD in bright light, presbyopia)

2011-11-21 Supposing a 36 Megapixel Nikon DSLR Arrives... What About Lenses and Technique?

2011-09-17 Leica M Usability and Versatility: Reader Experience

2011-09-17 Fuji X100 Focusing Note

2011-08-20 Reader Comments on Focusing, Live View, Really Right Stuff Tripod

2011-08-18 Reader Feedback on Making Sharp Images — Live View

2011-08-17 Product Photography: Autofocus Helps

2011-08-13 Reader Comment on Making Sharp Images Guide

2011-07-16 Autofocus Assist (Electronic Rangefinder) Accuracy

2011-06-27 Leica M9: Which Viewfinder Magnifier To Aid Focusing?

2011-06-26 Which Macro Lens for 1:1 or Better?

2011-06-21 Leica 21mm f/3.4 Super-Elmar-M ASPH

2011-06-10 Open Letter to Leica — 10 Ways To Improve the M9 Rangefinder

2011-04-25 Autofocus Doesn’t Cut It

2011-04-24 Nikon AF-S 60mm f/2.8G Macro Lens

2011-03-14 Autofocus Consistency With Canon and Nikon 35mm f/1.4 Lenses

2011-03-02 Focusing the Leica M9 with the Zeiss 3X loupe — Fantastic

2011-03-02 Accuracy of Rangefinder Focusing With Leica M and Zeiss ZM Lenses on Leica M9

2011-01-21 Focusing the Pentax 645D with the Zeiss 3X loupe

2011-01-12 Nikon 35mm f/1.4G focusing update

2011-01-05 Focusing the Pentax 645D with camera focus assist


2010-12-29 Update on Nikon 35mm f/1.4G and Nikon D3x autofocus

2010-12-29 Live View vs Autofocus with Nikon 35mm f/1.4G

2010-12-26 Nikon 35mm f/1.4G focus problems confirmed by other users

2010-12-21 Leica S2 focusing fact and fiction

2010-11-23 Reader report on manual focus accuracy, installing shims on Nikon D700

2010-11-07 Making Sharp Images updated with autofocus error study

2010-11-03 Leica S2 new examples and autofocus accuracy in the field

2010-07-14 Leica S2 37.5 megapixel DSLR review additions

2010-07-12 Correspondence with Erwin Puts on Leica M9 focusing

2010-05-10 Nikon 24mm f/1.4G autofocus study published!

2010-05-09 Nikon 24mm f/1.4G autofocus survey results

2010-05-08 Nikon 24mm f/1.4G autofocus hugely erratic

2010-05-04 Nikon AF-S 24mm f/1.4G ED review — more coming


2009-12-28 Zeiss ZF.2 lenses — focusing feel

2009-11-01 Carl Zeiss announces ZE 35mm f/2 Distagon for Canon EOS

2009-10-26 Focusing screens for your DSLR

2009-06-13 Canon 5D Mark II focusing


2008-12-16 Zeiss ZE 50mm f/1.4 Planar for Canon EOS

2008-11-11 Zeiss ZE 85mm f/1.4 Planar for Canon EOS focus problem

2008-08-14 Focusing screens for the Nikon D3

2008-07-09 Nikon D3 focusing mystery solved!

2008-05-12 Followup on Nikon D3 focusing

2008-03-25 Star focusing


2007-12-02 Nikon D3 focus problems

2007-08-28 Focusing screens for Canon EOS

2007-07-03 Focusing on infinity / shooting stars


2006-08-27 Autofocus accuracy with the Canon EOS 1Ds Mark II and 85mm/f1.2L II USM

2006-08-09 The Fujifilm S3 Pro UVIR camera

2006-07-31 Double image in out-of-focus background (Canon EF 85mm/f1.2L II USM)

2006-07-24 Infrared backfocus

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